Varicose veins—those bluish-purple, bulging veins that appear twisted on your lower legs—can be embarrassing and painful. Fortunately, there are home remedies that can help ease the symptoms without resorting to surgery or laser treatments. If your varicose veins make you feel embarrassed to wear shorts or bathing suits or are causing you too much pain and discomfort, try these effective essential oils to stop them from becoming worse.
- 1 Varicose Veins: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, and Treatments
- 2 How do healthy veins work?
- 3 What are the causes of varicose veins?
- 4 What are the home remedies and medical treatments for varicose veins?
- 5 Essential Oils for Varicose Veins
Varicose Veins: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, and Treatments
Varicose veins are common. In the United States, around 23 percent of adults have them. Men can have them, but they’re more common in women between 40 and 80 years of age. 1
Varicose veins, also called varicosities, are veins that are gnarled, swollen, enlarged, and clearly visible through the skin. The color of the veins from the skin surface range from nude to red to bluish-purple to dark blue. They can occur in any part of the body, but they mostly affect the lower legs and feet.
The symptoms of varicose veins are usually mild. However, they tend to be worse before a woman’s menstruation, in warm weather, and during prolonged sitting or standing.
Some of the symptoms of varicose veins may include 2:
- Changes in the color of the skin (could be nude, blue, or dark purple)
- Fluid build-up in the feet and ankles
- Feeling pain (throbbing or burning) or heaviness in the legs
- Muscle cramps, especially during nighttime
- Increased pain after long periods of sitting or standing
- Rough or dry, itchy, or thin skin over the varicose vein
- Bleeding from varicose veins near the surface of the skin (either spontaneously or due to a skin injury, like a cut or bump)
- Skin inflammation or skin ulceration (needs immediate medical attention)
How do healthy veins work?
Inside your veins are one-way valves, which open to let your blood (coming from the rest of your body) flow. At the same time, the muscles around your veins contract rhythmically and forcefully to compress your veins and help push your blood towards your heart. Then, your veins close to keep your blood from flowing backward.
However, in people with varicose veins, these one-way valves become weak or damaged. As a result, your blood flows backward and accumulates in your veins. This increases the pressure inside, eventually causing your veins to appear gnarled, enlarged, and bulged.
What are the causes of varicose veins?
Varicose veins are one of the common discomforts during pregnancy. The estimate is around 72.7 percent of pregnant women may develop varicose veins. 3 They usually become more noticeable as the pregnancy progresses.
Why are pregnant women at risk of developing varicose veins?
One reason is hormone fluctuations. According to a French study, higher levels of progesterone have a greater impact on the development of varicose veins during pregnancy than those with lower levels of the same hormone. 4 Progesterone plays a role in the dilation and weakening of blood vessels. When progesterone hormone levels continue to fluctuate, it could damage the small, one-way valves inside the veins, which could lead to varicosity.
Pregnancy also causes an increase in blood volume to support the growing baby. The increased blood volume and weight of the baby place extra pressure on the veins in the lower legs, which also work hard to fight gravity and return the blood to the heart. All of these contribute to the formation of varicose veins.
Your blood vessels could become inelastic and damaged as you get older. When the veins in your legs lose its ability to relax and contract, their one-way valves are unable to open to let blood through and close properly to prevent blood from flowing backward, causing blood to pool in your veins.
Other risk factors:
- Heredity: Your chances of getting varicose veins are higher if anyone in your family have them. For instance, your mother may have developed varicose veins during pregnancy.
- Gender: Women have a greater risk for developing this condition because of hormonal changes they go through during pregnancy and before and after menstruation. The female hormone, estrogen, causes the vein walls to relax and become prone to leaking. Taking birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may also contribute to the problem.
- Being overweight or obese: The extra pounds can increase the pressure on your veins. As a result, your veins malfunction because the small valves inside them become weak and damaged.
- Lifestyle choices: For instance, standing and sitting over prolonged periods could cause your veins to exert more effort to push blood from your lower legs back to your heart. If this continues, it could trigger an inflammatory process that leads to painful varicose veins.
What are the home remedies and medical treatments for varicose veins?
When treating varicose veins, your doctor may examine the cause, symptoms, location, and severity of your condition to pick the right treatment. Wearing compression stockings (first choice), changing one’s lifestyle (e.g. quitting smoking, avoiding alcohol consumption, exercising regularly, and elevating your legs), and following an anti-inflammatory diet are just some of the things you can do at home to prevent your varicose veins from becoming worse.
Varicose veins that are severe or unresponsive to home remedies and self-care measures may require advanced therapies, including:
- Laser surgery
- Sclerotherapy (uses an injectable medicine to shrink blood vessels)
- Ambulatory phlebectomy (removal of varicose veins)
- Endoscopic vein surgery (for severe cases)
These treatments are usually effective, but if you need another option, essential oils might help. While there aren’t solid scientific studies that prove they can eliminate varicose veins, there are anecdotal reports and preliminary studies that suggest they might help manage the symptoms of this medical condition.
Essential Oils for Varicose Veins
Rosemary Essential Oil
Most people with varicose veins often describe the pain as throbbing, burning, or deep ache. Elevating the affected leg for at least 30 minutes or wearing compression stockings during the day usually relieves the pain.
Rubbing a few drops of rosemary essential oil on your varicose veins is also a good idea. Study shows this essential oil is a good pain-reliever, thanks to its main active compounds: alpha-pinene, camphor, and 1,8-cineole. 5
Fluid accumulation in the tissues, particularly above the ankles, occurs when the valves in your veins stop working properly. So, when you get a minor cut on your skin, it might develop into an extremely painful ulcer because it doesn’t receive the nutrients and oxygen that are vital for the healing process.
Rosemary essential oil acts as an antiseptic, antibacterial, and antifungal agent. 6 Plus, it may help improve blood flow. 7 Thus, it’s often used for treating skin-surface and deep wounds.
Caveat: Don’t use rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oil if you have any medical condition that affects your blood sugar. There’s a possibility that it might increase your blood sugar levels. If you’re pregnant, consult your obstetrician-gynecologist (OB-GYN) before using this essential oil.
Lavender Essential Oil
High-quality lavender essential oil is great to have with you all the time. It has numerous therapeutic compounds that can keep the symptoms of varicose veins under control.
Do you usually get muscle cramps, especially during nighttime? Lavender essential oil may help relax your muscles and ease the pain. 8 The aromatic esters in lavender essential oil are responsible for suppressing painful muscle spasms caused by varicose veins. 9 To relieve muscle cramps, you can use lavender essential oil by itself or combined with essential oils for muscle spasms, such as cypress, Roman chamomile, marjoram, and clary sage essential oils.
Aside from the usual dry, itchy skin, people with varicose veins are also at risk for stasis eczema, also known as varicose eczema. This is a chronic condition that generally affects the lower legs. Common signs and symptoms of stasis eczema are swelling, itching, and skin that’s dry, scaly, and red. If left untreated, it could cause a secondary infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
Lavender essential oil is known for its nourishing and skin-healing properties. It’s often used for treating various skin problems, such as eczema, burns, sunburns, and psoriasis. Because of its ability to fight infection-causing microorganisms (particularly Staphylococcus aureus) 10 and promote healthy blood flow, cuts, scrapes, wounds, and other types of skin injury can heal faster.
Caveat: Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil can lower blood pressure. So, if you have abnormally low blood pressure (below 90/60 mmHg), avoid using this. Boys who haven’t hit puberty may experience abnormal breast growth if continually exposed to lavender essential oil. It usually goes away once they stop using it.
Other possible side effects of lavender essential oil include:
- Pain in the head
- Stomach discomfort
Lemongrass Essential Oil
Lemongrass essential oil makes a great remedy for varicose veins for different reasons. One good reason is it’s an analgesic and muscle relaxant. 11 When you’re having muscle cramps in your legs due to varicose veins, combine 4 drops of lemongrass essential and 3 teaspoons of carrier oil. Pour a few drops of the oil into your hands and massage your lower leg. Remember to stroke towards your heart.
It consists of limonene, which is a natural painkiller, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infection chemical. 12 That’s why it’s used externally to heal wounds, cuts, scrapes, and other types of skin injuries.
People with varicose veins are prone to bleeding. The swollen and enlarged veins near the surface of the skin could bleed heavily, with or without an injury. The bleeding could be difficult to stop, but application of pressure and elevation of the leg may help. Since lemongrass essential oil is considered an astringent, it stops bleeding by speeding up the process of blood clotting and shrinking small blood vessels. 13
Caveat: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil is irritating, especially if you use it undiluted or in larger amounts. Don’t use this internally or externally if you have liver or kidney problem, allergies, sensitive skin, high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, or are pregnant.
Cypress Essential Oil
Cypress essential oil is extracted from the needles, stems, and twigs of the cypress tree through steam distillation. This light-yellow essential oil produces an herbaceous and woody aroma that’s highly energizing and uplifting. Topically, you can use it for joint pain, muscle cramps, varicose veins, and oily skin conditions.
Due to the presence of camphene in cypress essential oil, it’s a good ingredient in antiseptic creams and lotions. 14 You can combine with other essential oils, such as bergamot, rosemary, basil, and tea tree oils, to enhance its ability to kill harmful microscopic organisms that might potentially infect the cut or ulcers on the skin near your varicose veins.
Cypress essential oil causes blood to clot and shrinks tissues and blood vessels. These two qualities enable it to stop bleeding and benefit those who are suffering from varicose veins.
Caveat: Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) essential oil is generally safe to use. However, I don’t recommend using it on pregnant women because of its ability to regulate menstrual bleeding. Don’t take this orally without your doctor’s approval.
Helichrysum Essential Oil
Well known for its benefits for the skin, helichrysum essential oil may also help manage the symptoms of varicose veins in a variety of ways. How exactly does it help?
It’s an anticoagulant. 15 This simply means that it can prevent or dissolve blood clots and help thin the blood. People who have varicose veins are at risk of developing superficial blood clots, also called phlebitis or superficial thrombophlebitis. Fortunately, unlike the blood clots formed in the deep veins, superficial blood clots don’t travel to the lungs, which can be fatal.
It fights infections. The skin over the varicose vein is usually thin, so it bruises or tears easily. The vein could also rupture without a cause. Open sores could also develop because of the malfunctioning one-way valves in the veins.
According to a review published in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, helichrysum essential oil contains organic compounds (flavonoids and terpene) that can effectively stop the growth of bacteria and fungi that commonly cause skin issues, such as poor wound healing, skin irritations, rashes, and infections. 16
It relieves spasms and pain. 17 It’s common for people with varicose veins to experience muscle cramps, especially at nighttime. That’s why essential oils like helichrysum essential oil is a blessing. It relieves muscle pain by improving blood flow and reducing inflammation and swelling.
Caveat: Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum) essential oil is considered gentle and safe if diluted properly. However, as always, it’s not for pregnant or breastfeeding women, children, people who have problems with their bile ducts or gallbladder, and people who are allergic to plants belonging in the Asteraceae/Compositae plant family (e.g. daisies, sunflowers, and ragweeds).
Clary Sage Essential Oil
As I previously mentioned, being overweight or obese is a major risk factor for varicose veins. The extra weight can cause or aggravate varicose veins in two ways:
- First, it could increase the pressure on your veins, especially those in your legs, causing damage to their valves.
- Second, excessive buildup of fat could cause your veins to become stiff and narrow. As a result, your blood backflows and increases pressure on the veins, which may eventually lead to the formation of varicose veins.
Clary sage essential oil is rich in niacin and caffeic acid. 18 These chemical compounds are responsible for its ability to dissolve excess fat. On top of that, clary sage essential oil can also dilate your veins. These qualities of this essential oil promote better blood flow and lessen the pressure on your veins, which can help prevent varicose veins.
Wounds or ulcers due to varicose veins are less likely to develop infections if you apply diluted clary sage essential oil to them. This essential oil has antiseptic action, which allows wounds to heal properly, without infection. 19
Caveat: Clary sage (Salvia sclarea) essential oil is generally safe to use in most people, except in pregnant women, people with high blood pressure, and people who are taking opioid pain relievers (e.g. morphine and codeine). As always, dilute it properly and perform a skin patch test prior to liberal application.
Yarrow Essential Oil
Yarrow is also known for its folk name, nosebleed. 20 Why? Because yarrow helps stop bleeding if you inhale a pinch of its powdered form. The essential oil from this flowering plant also does the same by shrinking the skin and constricting small blood vessels. However, it’s not suitable for injuries with major bleeding.
Yarrow essential oil moves blood to different parts of your body, so it doesn’t stagnate. 21 Varicose veins are filled with stagnant blood, which can become blood clots. It also helps if you perform doctor-prescribed exercises, raise your legs above your heart, and avoid long periods of staying in one position.
As you know, varicose veins could trigger painful muscle cramps. In cases like these, you can use yarrow essential oil as a massage oil. It helps relax stiff and sore muscles because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-spasm properties. 22
Caveat: When applied to the skin, yarrow (Achillea millefolium) essential oil doesn’t usually cause serious side effects. If you have sensitive or damaged skin, avoid using it undiluted and without doing a skin patch test. Since it causes toxic effects to the nerves, refrain from inhaling it in high dosages and/or prolonged periods.
This is contraindicated to:
- Children, especially those under 2 years of age
- Pregnant or breastfeeding women
- People suffering from epilepsy or other medical conditions of the nervous system
Wintergreen Essential Oil
Pure wintergreen essential oil has a light yellow or pink-yellow color, with a sweet and minty scent. This essential oil is a common ingredient in massage oils, topical pain relievers, and oral hygiene products (e.g. breath fresheners and toothpastes).
Wintergreen essential oil is best known for its ability to ease pain. It’s usually used for relieving muscle cramps, painful joints, tendonitis (inflammation of the thick fibrous cord that connects muscle to a bone), bone pain, and headache.
This pain-killing action of wintergreen essential oil is attributed to its active chemical component, methyl salicylate. It becomes even more effective in relieving pain if you combine it with peppermint essential oil. 23 Just make sure to use it in low doses to avoid adverse reactions.
Caveat: Due to its high methyl salicylate content, wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) essential oil is toxic, so never try to take it by mouth. Ingesting an ounce or less (approximately 10 ml to 30 ml) of this essential oil could be fatal. As always, dilute it in organic and mild carrier oils and perform a skin patch test.
This essential oil may not be suitable for the following:
- Those who are allergic to anything with salicylate
- Those who are 14 years old and below
- Those who are suffering from bleeding disorders and/or are taking blood thinners
Birch Essential Oil
Birch essential oil’s color ranges from clear to light yellow. It has a sweet, minty, fresh, and beer-like aroma that’s uplifting and soothing. The birch essential oil that’s commercially available are extracted from two varieties: white birch (Betula pendula) and black birch (Betula lenta).
This essential oil has a long history of use for soothing sore muscles. Like wintergreen essential oil, it’s rich in methyl salicylate that’s effective in reducing pain and swelling. 24 Since it’s also an antispasmodic, it would make a great remedy whenever you’re experiencing muscle cramps caused by your varicose veins.
When making your own massage oil blend, remember to use only a few drops of birch essential oil and always follow the correct dilution ratio (which you can usually find on the bottle of the essential oil). A good rule of thumb is to mix 12 drops of any essential oil with every fluid ounce (fl. ounce) or 30 ml of carrier oil, moisturizer, cream, or lotion to make a 2 percent blend.
Caveat: Since it contains methyl salicylate, avoid using birch essential oil in large doses. Dilute it properly using a mild carrier oil, such as coconut oil and almond oil, to avoid adverse reactions. If you plan to take this by mouth, don’t. It’s potentially toxic when ingested because of its methyl salicylate content.
Birch essential oil is contraindicated to the following people:
- Those who are pregnant or breastfeeding
- Those who are below the age of 12
- Those who are under medication, especially if they’re taking medicines for blood clots and/or blood pressure
- Those who are suffering from epilepsy, ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), digestive problems, and Parkinson’s disease
Lemon Essential Oil
In the ancient times, lemons were widely used for treating infectious diseases. Today, the essential oil extracted from lemon rinds has a wide variety of uses, from baking to beverage manufacturing to treating health problems, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, and headaches.
Around 68 percent of the essential oil consists of d-limonene, also called limonene. 25 This oil nutrient is a strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. And according to Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist Byron J. Richards, this helps with weight management because it suppresses appetite and enhancing metabolism. 26
Inhaling this essential oil seems to be the best way to take advantage of its ability to maintain a healthy weight. In an animal study published in the Experimental Biology and Medicine, results showed that when mixed with grapefruit essential oil, inhalation of lemon essential oil can help dissolve fat. 27 Thus, suppressing body weight gain.
As you know, being overweight or obese is a major risk factor for varicose veins. So, by losing weight, you can take off the extra pressure on the veins that causes blood pooling.
Tips for using lemon essential oil for weight loss:
- Inhalation: Add 3 to 5 drops each of lemon essential oil and grapefruit essential oil to your diffuser or burner. Let it run for 10 to 30 minutes. Inhale deeply.
- Oral intake: Mix 1 to 2 drops of lemon essential oil with a teaspoon of pure honey, and then add warm water.
Caveat: Lemon (Citrus limon) essential oil is generally safe to use on the skin of most adults. However, since it’s a phototoxic essential oil, you need to avoid the sun and other sources of ultraviolet radiation for 24 to 72 hours after application. If you need to go out, make sure to cover the area where you applied the essential oil to avoid negative skin reactions.
Ingesting lemon essential oil could be potentially harmful if you don’t prepare it properly. It might cause negative side effects, such as burning sensation in the throat, mouth or tongue sores, and other digestive tract irritations.
Cinnamon Essential Oil
There are currently two types of cinnamon essential oil: cinnamon bark essential oil and cinnamon leaf essential oil. Although both are beneficial, most aromatherapy enthusiasts prefer the essential oil from cinnamon bark because of its potency.
Cinnamon bark essential oil is rich in cinnamaldehyde. It comprises 60 percent of the essential oil. 28 This organic compound gives cinnamon its distinct flavor and scent. It’s also the reason that cinnamon bark essential oil is an effective antifungal and antibacterial agent.
You can use mix 3 to 5 drops of the essential oil with any mild edible oil, such as almond oil and coconut oil. Apply it to the ulcers or wounds over your varicose veins to prevent infection and facilitate faster healing.
In most cases, the beneficial effects of cinnamon bark essential oil have to do with its ability to improve blood flow. It does this by aiding nitric oxide function. 29 The inner lining of your blood vessels needs this chemical compound to tell the surrounding smooth muscle to dilate or relax. As a result, it increases blood flow.
Cinnamon bark essential oil might also help people to lose weight. Some experts suggest that it works by balancing blood sugar levels. When your blood sugar is unstable, it causes you to overeat and gain weight.
In one study, researchers suggest that cinnamon could reduce the negative effects of a high-fat diet. 30 The rats used in the study weighed less, had much less belly fat, and had healthier sugar, fat, and insulin levels in their blood.
The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approves the consumption of cinnamon essential oil. Make sure to use a high-quality cinnamon bark essential oil from a trustworthy brand. To use internally, you can mix a drop or two with a teaspoon of honey.
Caveat: Be careful when using cinnamon bark essential oil. If you’re pregnant or have any health issue, consult your doctor first before using this topically, orally, or through inhalation.
If it’s your first time to use this essential oil, start with small doses before increasing the amount (if necessary). Don’t forget to mix it with a mild carrier oil and perform a skin patch test prior to liberal application.
A few possible side effects of ingesting cinnamon bark essential oil are:
- Heart palpitations
Varicose veins are rarely life-threatening, so they don’t normally require medical treatment. However, if you don’t treat the root cause, complications may develop, such as extremely painful skin ulcers, swollen leg due to blood clots, and minor bleeding due to ruptured veins near the surface of the skin.
According to the NHS Choices 31, consult your doctor if:
- Your varicose veins are causing you too much discomfort or pain
- You can’t sleep because your legs are aching at night
- The skin over or near your varicose veins becomes irritated and develops ulcers
Remember: Essential oils may help manage the symptoms of varicose veins, but they’re not replacements for medical treatment. Use them carefully, especially when you take them internally or use them on sensitive areas of your body.
So, which of these essential oils for varicose veins worked best for you?
 Hamdan A. (2012 Dec 26). Management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency. JAMA. Vol. 308, Issue 24, Pages 2612-21. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23268520?access_num=23268520&link_type=MED&dopt=Abstract
 Newton de Barros Junior, Maria Del Carmen Janeiro Perez, Jorge Eduardo de Amorim, and Fausto Miranda Junior. (2010 Jun). Pregnancy and lower limb varicose veins: prevalence and risk factors. Jornal Vascular Brasileiro. Vol. 9, No. 2. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1677-54492010000200004&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en
 Advanced Varicose Vein Treatments of Manhattan: http://www.treatmentsofmanhattan.com/progesterone-and-varicose-veins/
 Raskovic A, Milanovic I, Pavlovic N, et al. (2015 Jan). Analgesic effects of rosemary essential oil and its interactions with codeine and paracetamol in mice. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. Vol. 19, No. 1, Pages 165-72. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635991
 Dr. Mercola: https://articles.mercola.com/herbal-oils/rosemary-oil.aspx
 Silva GL, Luft C, Lunardelli A, et al. (2015 Aug). Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. Vol. 87, 2 Suppl, Pages 1397-408. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26247152
 Sienkiewicz M, Lysakowska M, Ciecwierz J, et al. (2011 Nov). Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils. Medicinal Chemistry. Vol. 7, Issue 6, Pages 674-89. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22313307
 Meenapriya M and Dr. Jothi Priya. (2017). Effect of Lemongrass Oil on Rheumatoid Arthritis. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. Vol. 9, No. 2, Pages 237-239. Retrieved from http://jpsr.pharmainfo.in/Documents/Volumes/vol9Issue02/jpsr09021734.pdf
 Nostro A, Bisignano G, Angela Cannatelli M, et al. (2001 Jun). Effects of Helichrysum italicum extract on growth and enzymatic activity of Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Vol. 17, Issue 6, Pages 517-20. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11397624
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/helichrysum-essential-oil/
 David Roulston. (n.d.). Herbs For Health. Retrieved from https://www.herbs-for-health.com/essential-oils-cellulite/
 Ayhan Ulubelen. (2003 Sept.). Cardioactive and antibacterial terpenoids from some Salvia species. Phytochemistry. Vol. 64, Issue 2, Pages 395-399. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031942203002255
 Herbalist Lisa Zahn. (July 16, 2008). Retrieved from https://articles.mercola.com/herbal-oils/yarrow-oil.aspx#_edn1
 There’s An EO For That: https://www.theresaneoforthat.com/best-essential-oils-shrinking-varicose-veins/
 Patricia R. Hebert, PhD, E. Joan Barice, MD, and Charles H. Hennekens, MD, DrPH. (2014 Apr 1). Treatment of Low Back Pain: The Potential Clinical and Public Health Benefits of Topical Herbal Remedies. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Vol. 20, No. 4, Pages 219-220. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995208/
 Young Living Essential Oils: https://www.youngliving.com/en_EU/products/lemon-
 Byron J. Richards. (2013 Feb. 27). D-Limonene: Help for Digestion, Metabolism, Detoxification, Anxiety & Breast Cancer Prevention. Wellness Resources. Retrieved from https://www.wellnessresources.com/news/d-limonene-help-for-digestion-metabolism-detoxification-anxiety-breast-canc
 Akira Niijima and Katsuya Nagai. (2003). Effect of Olfactory Stimulation with Flavor of Grapefruit Oil and Lemon Oil on the Activity of Sympathetic Branch in the White Adipose Tissue of the Epididymis. Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 228, Issue 10. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/153537020322801014
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/cinnamon-oil/
 Lee HS, Kim BS, and Kim MK. (2002 Dec. 18). Suppression effect of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived component on nitric oxide synthase. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 50, Issue 26, Pages 7700-3. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12475291
 American Heart Association. (2016 May 6). Cinnamon may lessen damage of high-fat diet in rats. Retrieved from http://newsroom.heart.org/news/cinnamon-may-lessen-damage-of-high-fat-diet-in-rats?preview=b021