Looking for alternatives for morning sickness? Essential oils could be great options. They contain powerful medicinal compounds that could ease the symptoms of morning sickness, such as nausea, vomiting, and headaches while boosting your overall health. If you’re experiencing morning sickness and looking for other natural treatments, check out these 9 essential oils for morning sickness plus tips on how to use them.
- 1 What Is Morning Sickness?
- 2 What Causes Morning Sickness?
- 3 Best Essential Oils for Morning Sickness Relief
- 3.1 Lemon (Citrus limon) Essential Oil
- 3.2 Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla or Chamaemelum nobile) Essential Oil
- 3.3 Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Essential Oil
- 3.4 Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil
- 3.5 Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) Essential Oil
- 3.6 Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides) Essential Oil
- 3.7 Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Essential Oil
- 3.8 Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil
- 3.9 Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Essential Oil
- 3.10 Conclusion
What Is Morning Sickness?
Morning sickness is also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), pregnancy sickness, and nausea gravidarum. Morning sickness is a misnomer—this condition can happen at other times of the day. 1
According to a review published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, around 80 percent of women who are in their first trimester of pregnancy suffer from morning sickness. 2 However, this condition is generally not life-threatening and goes away after 12 to 14 weeks (between 3 and 4 months) of gestation. 3
Common symptoms of morning sickness include 4:
- Continuous, severe vomiting (occurs more than three times a day)
- Persistent, extreme nausea
- Fast heartbeat
- Loss of body fluids
- A decreased output of urine due to dehydration
- Poor weight gain or maternal weight loss associated with morning sickness
What Causes Morning Sickness?
The root cause is still unclear, but the popular belief is it has to do with increased levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) during pregnancy. The placenta (the organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby) produces this hormone during the second week of pregnancy. It continues to increase by at least 60 percent every 2 days until it reaches a certain amount. 5
Pregnant women who suffer from morning sickness usually have higher levels of hCG than other pregnant women. Fortunately, the levels of hCG usually drop when the placenta is fully formed (fourth month of pregnancy). By this time, the symptoms of morning sickness, including nausea and vomiting, should ease.
If your morning sickness becomes worse despite using self-care measures, you may need to visit your OB-GYN (obstetrician-gynecologist) for a checkup. He or she may prescribe medications to reduce the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting. These medications are usually safe to take during pregnancy.
In most cases, however, medical intervention is not necessary. Home remedies and self-care measures are often enough to alleviate morning sickness symptoms.
Best Essential Oils for Morning Sickness Relief
Lemon (Citrus limon) Essential Oil
Lemon essential oil is extracted from the rinds of the fruit using high mechanical pressure (cold pressing). It’s usually light yellow to yellow-green in color and smells just like lemon rinds, but only richer and more concentrated. Simply inhaling the essential oil can uplift the mood and boost energy, thanks to its monoterpenes (Limonene, beta-Pinene, and two monoterpenes). 6
Aside from improving your mood, it’s also a great morning sickness antidote. In a controlled, double-blind randomized study published in the Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, the researchers wanted to know the effect of inhaling lemon essential oil in 100 pregnant women who were having bouts of nausea and vomiting. 7 They divided them into two groups: the essential oil group and the control group.
Whenever they feel nauseous, they asked the participants to put 2 drops of whatever essential oil they were given to a cotton and place it at least 3cm away from their nose. Then, they inhaled deeply thrice through the nose. If after five minutes they still feel nauseous, they can repeat the procedure.
The effect was relatively fast Just on the second day, the essential oil group who inhaled lemon essential oil already felt dramatic positive improvements. On the fourth day, results showed that the group experienced a significant decrease (around 33 percent) in the number of episodes and intensity of their nausea and vomiting.
- Inhalation: Diffuse 3 to 4 drops of lemon essential oil thrice daily. Or, add 1 to 2 drops of the essential oil on a cotton ball or paper towel. Place it 1 to 2 inches away from your nose and breathe in deeply whenever you feel nauseous. Repeat this as necessary.
- Lemon essential oil combines perfectly with fennel, eucalyptus, geranium, frankincense, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, and peppermint essential oils.
Citrus essential oils, such as lemon essential oil, are classified as phototoxic. This means that your skin could blister, darken, or burn when you directly expose it to any sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, such as the sun. DōTTERA.com recommends staying out of the sun or other sources of UV radiation for a maximum of 12 hours after applying the essential oil. Speak with your doctor first before using this internally or externally. Keep it out of reach of children.
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla or Chamaemelum nobile) Essential Oil
Traditionally, chamomile essential oil is used extensively to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disturbances, including morning sickness, because it’s an antispasmodic (relieves muscle spasms). The essential oil extracted from Roman chamomile contains a compound called anodyne, which acts as a painkiller and can cause the stomach muscles to relax. 8 As a result, food passes through the bowels (intestines) easily and prevents vomiting.
Chamomile essential oil also dispels gas. Common symptoms of excess gas in the stomach and bowels are nausea, vomiting, belching, and bloating.
Anxiety and motion sickness often go together. Most pregnant women can experience high levels of stress, thanks to those crazy hormones (estrogen and progesterone) that affect the mood. When you’re stressed or anxious during pregnancy, it’s not surprising for you to be nauseous or have the urge to vomit.
Cutting back on sources of unhealthy (and controllable) stress may help ease some of your morning sickness. Aside from relaxation techniques (e.g. meditation and deep breathing exercises) and paying attention to your diet, using chamomile essential oil may help. The study shows that Roman chamomile and neroli essential oils helped ICU patients to feel more relaxed, beat anxiety, and have better sleep. 9
- Inhalation: Add 4 drops of Roman chamomile essential oil and 3 drops of frankincense essential oil into your diffuser. Diffuse for 30 minutes to 1 hour per day to chase away negative emotions. If you don’t have a diffuser, you can pour 2 to 3 drops of Roman chamomile essential oil on a cotton ball. Place it near your nose and breathe in deeply when necessary.
- Topical: Dilute 3 drops of chamomile essential oil (German chamomile or Roman chamomile) and 3 drops of lemon essential oil in 4 teaspoons of carrier oil. Stir to mix. Perform a skin patch test. If negative, apply on the bottom of your feet, temples, and wrists before bedtime or whenever you feel nauseous.
While chamomile essential oil is considered safe (if diluted properly), it’s still important to consult an OB-GYN (obstetrician-gynecologist) or a general practitioner before using it during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Taking this internally in large medicinal amounts is likely unsafe.
When used topically, it could trigger an allergic reaction, especially in people who are sensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae plant family, such as ragweed, marigold, sunflower, chrysanthemum, daisy, and many others. German chamomile essential oil could interact with medications for depression (antidepressant), psychosis (antipsychotic), abnormal rhythms of the heart (antiarrhythmic), and pain (analgesic). 10
Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Essential Oil
Peppermint essential oil is one of the best essential oils that you could use to treat a wide range of pregnancy-related complaints, from nausea to vomiting to a tension headache. In a 2013 study published in the Ecancermedicalscience, researchers found out that a blend of peppermint essential oil and spearmint essential oil is an effective and safe treatment for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting. 11
Pregnant women experience headaches for different reasons. One possible reason is changes in hormonal levels, especially in the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. Elevated blood volume in a pregnant woman’s system is another reason. Or, if there’s prolonged bouts of vomiting due to morning sickness, it could trigger a dehydration headache.
Peppermint essential oil contains a natural painkiller compound called menthol. When applied on the skin, menthol creates a cool-warm sensation that distracts the brain from the pain. In one study, results revealed that 10 percent peppermint essential oil could be as effective as non-prescription painkillers, such as paracetamol and aspirin. 12
- Inhalation: Diffuse 3 to 4 drops of the essential oil in your preferred diffuser and inhale deeply. You can also add other essential oils for morning sickness that combines well with peppermint essential oil, such as lavender, mandarin, and rosemary, to enhance its therapeutic effects.
- Topical: Dilute 5 drops of peppermint essential oil, 4 drops of Roman chamomile essential oil, and 3 drops of lavender essential oil in 5 to 6 teaspoons of carrier oil (coconut oil, avocado oil, almond oil, etc.). Perform a skin patch test before liberal application on your temples, wrists, bottoms of your feet, and on the back of your neck. Try this simple blend to get rid of nausea and anxiety.
Peppermint essential oil is safe to use during pregnancy, although I still recommend you consult your OB-GYN first before using it internally or externally. 13 During pregnancy, it may be better to diffuse or topically apply the essential oil than ingest it.
Don’t use the essential oil in large amounts because it may cause serious side effects, such as fast or slow breathing, sleep problems, diarrhea, convulsion, skin irritation (redness, swelling, and inflammation), nausea, vomiting, pain or discomfort in the belly, and depression. The essential oil is also not advisable for people who have diabetes or health issues affecting the digestive organs.
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil
Lavender essential oil is equipped with numerous benefits for the mind and body. For instance, it’s often used for treating digestive issues, such as nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness, because of its calming and relaxing scent.
Although more research is necessary, it may help facilitate the movement of food in the bowels and stimulate the production of gastric juices and bile, which are important for digestion and fat absorption. Thus, it may be a good remedy for indigestion (dyspepsia), excessive intestinal gas (flatulence), and vomiting. 14
During the first few weeks of pregnancy, many women feel all sorts of heightened emotions. To some extent, it’s normal for them to feel stressed or anxious about different things—baby’s health, financial aspects of raising a child, body changes, and parenting fears, to name a few. As we all know, our thoughts and emotions can affect our body, and vice versa. Some of the physical symptoms of anxiety, fear, and chronic stress include vomiting, nausea, bloating, and diarrhea or constipation.
In aromatherapy, lavender essential oil can reduce anxiety and stress and restore inner peace. In fact, in a 2010 study published in the Phytomedicine journal, the researchers suggested that lavender essential oil could be as effective as prescription drug lorazepam (Ativan). The only advantage of lavender essential oil is it doesn’t cause dependence or addiction. 15
- Inhalation: Rub 1 to 2 drops of lavender essential oil between your palms, and then breathe in deeply to calm your senses and relieve stress and anxiety. Or, diffuse 1 to 4 drops in your diffuser and turn it on for 30 minutes to 1 hour before your bedtime to help you sleep better. Lack of sleep can worsen morning sickness symptoms.
- Topical: Dilute 10 drops of lavender essential oil and 6 drops of peppermint essential oil in 6 to 7 teaspoons of carrier oil (e.g. jojoba oil, coconut oil, or sweet almond oil). To ease a headache and nausea, pour 1 to 3 drops of the oil on your fingers and gently massage onto your temples, forehead, and back of your neck.
Lavender essential oil is usually safe to use during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. However, women who have a previous history of miscarriage or pregnancy complications should avoid using the essential oil. In addition, people who are taking sedatives or antidepressants should avoid lavender essential oil, which already has potent antidepressive and sedative properties.
Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) Essential Oil
A close cousin of tangerine, mandarin essential oil is known in aromatherapy for its uplifting and calming effects. It’s a yellow to orange-green essential oil with a thin consistency. Its scent is often described as intensely sweet, tangy, and citrusy. When diffused or applied to the skin, it can combat the unpleasant effects of daily stress, promote better sleep, and enhance feelings of well-being and satisfaction.
Stomach spasms, which often cause nausea and vomiting, during pregnancy are common. Since it has antispasmodic and calming properties, mandarin essential oil relieved spasms in the digestive system (intestines and stomach) with just a few drops. 16 It also improves digestion by stimulating the production of digestive juices and bile to prevent indigestion, which commonly causes nausea, vomiting, bloating, stomach ache, and heartburn.
In a recent study published in the journal Complementary Therapies in Medicine, nurses included essential oil in their patient care to examine its effectiveness in treating pain, nausea, and anxiety. 17 Out of all the essential oils they used, mandarin essential oil gave the most positive results. The patients experienced an improvement in their pain, anxiety, and nausea.
- Inhalation: Add 3 drops of mandarin essential oil, 2 drops of lavender essential oil, and 2 drops of Roman chamomile essential oil in your diffuser. Let it run for 30 minutes to 1 hour to relax your mind and promote better sleep.
- Topical: Make a relaxing massage oil using mandarin essential oil. Dilute 3 drops of mandarin essential oil, 2 drops of bergamot essential oil, and 2 drops of frankincense essential oil in 4 teaspoons of mild carrier oil (e.g. coconut oil, almond oil, and avocado oil). Massage this on your chest, back of your neck, temples, shoulders, and between your index finger and thumb.
Like with most essential oils for morning sickness, mandarin essential oil is generally non-toxic and non-irritant. As a citrus oil, it has photosensitizing properties. Meaning, it could cause negative side effects once you expose yourself to direct sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet radiation after use. To avoid or lessen its phototoxic effects, stay indoors for 2 hours or longer and dilute the essential oil with mild carrier oils.
Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides) Essential Oil
Vetiver essential oil may not be as popular as other essential oils, but it has been used for many things. In Southeast Asia and West Africa, it has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. Its caramel-like, sweet, smoky, and woody aroma has a grounding, calming effect on the emotions. It’s an ideal remedy for morning sickness because it’s an anti-emetic, which allows it to treat nausea and vomiting. 18
As I’ve pointed out earlier, emotions can have a positive or negative impact on the brain and body. If you’re pregnant and suffering from morning sickness, anxiety, stress, and other negative emotions will only make your condition worse. By de-stressing and stabilizing your mood when you’re feeling emotional, you can prevent or treat the nausea and vomiting associated with morning sickness.
Vetiver essential oil may offer some help. A 2015 study published in the journal Natural Product Research suggested that the essential oil may be an effective natural remedy for anxiety. In fact, it may have the same effects as diazepam, a common prescription drug for anxiety. 19
- Inhalation: Combine 2 drops of vetiver essential oil and 2 drops of myrrh essential oil together. Rub 1 to 2 drops between your palms then inhale deeply to benefit your mind and mood. You could also use a diffuser for this purpose.
- Topical: Dilute 2 to 3 drops of vetiver essential oil in 2 teaspoons of mild carrier oil, such as jojoba oil, sweet almond oil, and coconut oil. Massage on your temples, back of your neck, chest, and wrists.
- Vetiver essential oil blends well with the following essential oils: grapefruit, bergamot, geranium, lavender, benzoin, cedarwood, ginger, jasmine, rose, sandalwood, lemongrass, orange, patchouli, lemon, and ylang-ylang.
Vetiver essential oil is generally safe, whether you ingest, diffuse, or topically use it. It’s not irritating, toxic, and sensitizing. There’s currently no evidence the essential oil causes miscarriage or negative drug interactions. 20 However, as with most essential oils, it’s important to ask for expert medical advice before using it to make sure it won’t affect the baby inside your womb.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Essential Oil
Rosemary essential oil is a natural painkiller because it contains high amounts of camphor, 1,8-cineole, and alpha-pinene—all of these have pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory actions. 21 It’s especially effective in treating headache-induced nausea and vomiting.
It’s also good for gut health. Most people use it for relieving common digestive issues, such as stomach cramps, indigestion, intestinal gas, bloating, and constipation. 22 It works by regulating bile production in the liver. Common signs that your gallbladder is not working properly include vomiting, nausea, acid reflux, excess gas, abdominal pain, bloating, fever, and chills.
In some cases, a strong or unpleasant odor could trigger or aggravate morning sickness. The reason is unclear, but a heightened smell during the first trimester of pregnancy may be due to hormonal changes (increased levels of estrogen and human chorionic gonadotropin) associated with morning sickness. 23
If this is the cause of your morning sickness, you may want to remove the source of bad odor and use best-smelling essential oils to make a homemade room freshener. Rosemary essential oil is a common ingredient in many commercially available air fresheners, perfumes, bath oils, candles, and beauty products because of its mesmerizing and unique aroma, which is described as camphor-like and woody with a hint of lemon and pine.
- Inhalation: Add 2 drops of rosemary essential oil, 2 drops of lavender essential oil, and 1 drop of mandarin essential oil in your diffuser. Diffuse this blend in the room you’re staying in.
- Topical: Dilute 2 to 3 drops of rosemary essential oil in 2 teaspoons of coconut oil. Use it to massage your body. The massaging action coupled with the pleasant aroma and medicinal compounds of the essential oil will rejuvenate your senses and chase away feelings of nausea and vomiting.
- Rosemary essential oil blends well with the following essential oils: thyme, chamomile, frankincense, basil, lavender, eucalyptus, peppermint, and lemongrass.
There are different opinions about the safety of rosemary essential oil during pregnancy. Since it’s a uterine stimulant, it may cause a miscarriage in very high doses. This side effect of the essential oil is attributed to its camphor content. However, there are currently no clinical studies to back up this miscarriage-inducing effect of camphor. As always, speak with your OB-GYN before using the essential oil for whatever purpose during pregnancy.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil
Since ancient times, fresh ginger has been a popular remedy for stomach problems, including nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness. Some experts even believe that it’s worth trying when you’re suffering from morning sickness during pregnancy. According to a review published in the journal Integrative Medicine Insights, ginger is safe and effective in treating pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. 24
Gingerol, the major active constituent of fresh ginger, is a strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound that’s responsible for the medicinal actions of fresh ginger and ginger essential oil. 25 Studies show that this compound can effectively and safely treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy or after a chemotherapy session.
- Inhalation: To relieve nausea, diffuse 3 to 4 drops of ginger essential oil. Or, put 1 to 2 drops to a cotton ball or paper towel and carry it with you. Use it when necessary.
- Topical: Dilute 3 to 5 drops of ginger essential oil in 2 to 3 teaspoons of mild carrier oil. Massage it on your stomach, bottoms of your feet, temples, back of your neck, and wrists.
- Ginger essential oil blends well with the following essential oils: cedarwood atlas, frankincense, juniper berry, neroli, bergamot, vetiver, rosemary, rose, palmarosa, coriander, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, lemon, lime, orange, and geranium.
Opinions vary regarding using ginger essential oil during pregnancy. Some aromatherapists advise to use it with caution because it may trigger premature labor, although a few studies don’t back up this claim. As always, err on the side of caution and speak with your doctor to know if it’s safe to use or ingest.
If you plan to use it on your skin, avoid exposing the area to the sun within 24 hours after application because there’s a potential risk of photosensitivity reactions. Always use it in small doses and dilute it properly.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Essential Oil
Extracted from the crushed seeds of the plant, fennel essential oil is valued for its ability to support good digestive health. In China, Egypt, Greece, and India, the seeds and fresh leaves of fennel are used as an aid to digestion and to treat different gastrointestinal complaints, including heartburn, flatulence, bloating, and stomach cramps.
In a research published in Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, researchers suggest fennel essential oil is a potentially effective remedy for colic in infants. 26 It worked by easing intestinal spasms and improving movement through the intestine for better digestion and absorption. Intestinal colic in adults usually causes abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and anorexia (an eating disorder).
This study only confirms fennel essential oil’s carminative action. Meaning, it can expel excess gas in the intestines and prevent the formation of additional gases, providing much-needed relief. 27 Excessive gas (flatulence) is harmless, but it’s one of the reasons people experience nausea and vomiting, as well as other uncomfortable gastrointestinal symptoms, such as severe cramps, right-sided pain in the abdomen, constipation, and diarrhea.
- Inhalation: To relieve dizziness, vomiting, and/or nausea, add 4 drops of fennel essential oil and 3 drops of lavender essential oil into your preferred diffuser or vaporizer. Diffuse it for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Inhale deeply.
- Topical: Dilute 3 drops of fennel essential oil, 2 drops of peppermint essential oil, and 1 drop of ginger essential oil in 2 to 3 teaspoons of your preferred carrier oil (e.g. jojoba oil, coconut oil, and almond oil).
- Fennel essential oil blends well with the following essential oils: sandalwood, lavender, cardamom, rosemary, juniper berry, geranium, lemon, and basil.
In most adults, fennel essential oil is considered safe. However, pregnant women should use this with caution. Since it contains trans-anethole (anise camphor), it could increase the production of the primary female sex hormone, estrogen. 28 So, if you’re pregnant or have an estrogen-related medical condition (e.g. breast cancer or uterine cancer), it’s best to avoid this essential oil. As always, consult your doctor before using it internally or externally.
In addition, this is not suitable for people with epilepsy because it can cause hallucination and/or convulsion. There’s also a possibility that it may cause skin inflammation (dermatitis) and photosensitivity reaction when applied to the skin.
Essential oils can be a great help in alleviating symptoms of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. However, the smell of these oils might make your condition worse. Don’t be afraid to experiment to see which ones will help you the best.
In most women, morning sickness will disappear after a few weeks. There are also instances when you need to see your doctor, especially if 29:
- Your symptoms become worse, despite doing self-care measures.
- Your urine becomes dark or your urine output is abnormally low.
- You feel lightheaded or dizzy after standing up.
- Your heart is beating fast.
- You can’t keep anything down.
- You’re vomiting blood.
What self-care measures and alternative treatments helped alleviate your symptoms? We’d like to hear your thoughts so don’t forget to leave your comment below.
 Gadsby R, Barnie-Adshead AM, and Jagger C. (1993 Jun). A prospective study of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. The British Journal of General Practice. Vol. 43, Issue 371, Pages 245-8. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8373648/
  Lacroix R, Eason E, and Melzack R. (2000 Apr). Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: A prospective study of its frequency, intensity, and patterns of change. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Vol. 182, Issue 4, Pages 931-7. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10764476/
 Yavari Kia P, Safajou F, Shahnazi M, Nazemiyeh H. (2014 Mar). The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. Vol. 16, Issue 3; e14360. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24829772
 National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: https://nccih.nih.gov/health/chamomile/ataglance.htm
 Cho, M.-Y., Min, E. S., Hur, M.-H., & Lee, M. S. (2013). Effects of Aromatherapy on the Anxiety, Vital Signs, and Sleep Quality of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Patients in Intensive Care Units. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine?: eCAM, 2013, 381381. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1155/2013/381381
 Tayarani-Najaran, Z., Talasaz-Firoozi, E., Nasiri, R., Jalali, N., & Hassanzadeh, M. (2013). Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha × piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Ecancermedicalscience, 7, 290. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2013.290
 Göbel H, Heinze A, Heinze-Kuhn K, et al. (2016 June). Peppermint oil in the acute treatment of tension-type headache. Schmerz. Vol. 30, No. 3, Pages 295-310. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2710603
 The Miracle of Essential Oils: https://www.themiracleofessentialoils.com/is-peppermint-oil-safe-during-pregnancy/
 Woelk H and Schläfke S. (2010 Feb). A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder. Phytomedicine. Vol. 17, Issue 2, Pages 94-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962288
 Johnson JR, Rivard RL, Griffin KH, et al. (2016 Apr). The effectiveness of nurse-delivered aromatherapy in an acute care setting. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. Vol. 25, Page 164-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27062964
 Aroma HQ: http://www.aromahq.com/vetiver-oil/
 Saiyudthong S, Pongmayteegul S, Marsden CA, and Phansuwan-Pujito P. (2015). Anxiety-like behaviour and c-fos expression in rats that inhaled vetiver essential oil. Natural Product Research. Vol. 29, Issue 22, Pages 2141-4. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25553641
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/vetiver-oil/
 Raskovic A, Milanovic I, Pavlovic N, et al. (2015 Jan). Analgesic effects of rosemary essential oil and its interactions with codeine and paracetamol in mice. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. Vol. 19, No. 1, Pages 165-72. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635991
 The Bump: https://www.thebump.com/a/sense-of-smell
 Iñaki Lete and José Allué. (2016). The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy. Integrative Medicine Insights. Vol. 11, Pages 11-17. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818021/
 Govindarajan VS. (1982). Ginger–chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 1. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Vol. 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-96. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7049579/
 Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E, et al. (2003 Jul-Aug). The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. Vol. 9, Issue 4, Pages 58-61. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12868253
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/fennel-essential-oil/