Do you often experience severe pain in your lower back and have blood in your urine? Kidney stones might be to blame. Fortunately, there are many ways to prevent or dissolve kidney stones without invasive medical treatment. If you’re looking for a non-invasive, natural treatment for kidney stones, essential oils might help.
- 1 Kidney Stones: Overview
- 2 Kidney Stones: Self-Care Measures and Medical Treatment
- 3 The Best Essential Oils for Kidney Stones
Kidney Stones: Overview
Kidney stones are also called nephrolithiasis, urinary stones, and renal calculi. These stones are solid deposits that are formed inside your kidneys when your urine becomes concentrated, causing crystallized minerals to form and clump together.
There are four types of kidney stones:
Calcium Oxalate Stones
Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stones. Around 85-percent of stones are made of calcium and oxalate (an organic acid that’s found in varying amounts in almost all plant foods, such as leafy veggies, seeds, and nuts). 1 In some cases, calcium is chemically bound to phosphate. Calcium phosphate kidney stones are more common in people with metabolism and hormone problems.
The most common cause of calcium oxalate kidney stones is hypercalciuria. This is an inherited condition that causes excess calcium in the urine.
Known causes of hypercalciuria include:
- Hypercalciuria in sarcoidosis (an inflammatory condition that affects multiple body organs, particularly the lungs and lymph glands)
- Primary hyperparathyroidism (an enlargement of the parathyroid gland, which regulates the amount of calcium in the body)
- Some cancers
- Cushing’s syndrome (causes unusually high levels of cortisol)
- Vitamin D toxicity
- Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
- Paget’s disease (a chronic bone disorder)
- Intake of glucocorticoids (powerful chemicals that stop inflammation)
- Kidney disease
Uric Acid Stones
Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women. 2 This type of kidney stone is formed when there’s a high level of uric acid in the urine, or when the pH level of the urine is acidic (below 5.5) on a regular basis. The goal of treatment for uric acid stones is to liquify formed stones and prevent new ones from forming using alkalinizing medicines, such as sodium bicarbonate and potassium citrate.
Known causes of uric acid stones include:
- Genetic disorders that cause increased amounts of acid in the body
- A diet rich in purines, which are normally found in alcoholic beverages, certain vegetables (e.g., cauliflower, asparagus, spinach, and green peas), and animal protein (e.g., eggs, pork, fish, poultry, beef, and liver)
- Gout – A study has shown that around 50-percent of patients with gout have pure uric acid stones and 20-percent in those without gout. 3
Struvite stones, also called triple phosphate stone and infection stone, are made of magnesium ammonium phosphate. Around 15-percent of all kidney stones belong to this category. 4 They’re most common in women, infants, and elderly people because they get urinary tract infections more often than men. 5
Struvite stones are usually formed after a chronic urinary tract infection (e.g., bladder infection). During an infection, the bacteria releases certain chemicals that make urine less acidic. This allows the bacteria to multiply and stimulate the formation of struvite stones, which tend to become big fast over a period of weeks to months.
It’s rare for people to get cystine stones. Not only are cystine stones bigger than other kidney stones, they’re also more difficult to treat and will need long-term therapy.
This type of kidney stone is due to a genetic condition called cystinuria, which is characterized by large amounts of cystine, an amino acid, in the urine. This causes the formation of cystine stones in the bladder, kidneys, and ureter (the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder).
Common symptoms of kidney stones:
- Severe pain in the side, lower back, under the ribs, and groin caused by a kidney stone moving through your urinary tract
- Nausea and vomiting
- Pain when urinating
- A red, pink, or brown urine
- Blood leaking into urine (hematuria)
- Urine that’s cloudy or foul smelling
- Constant urge to urinate
- Needing to urinate more frequently
- Low urine output
- High fever (38˚C or 100.4˚F) and chills—if there’s an infection
Kidney Stones: Self-Care Measures and Medical Treatment
- Medical treatment. The right treatment will depend on what type of kidney stone you have. For small kidney stones, invasive treatments are usually not needed. Your doctor may prescribe medications to relieve pain (e.g., naproxen sodium, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen) and pass the kidney stones (e.g., tamsulosin, alfuzosin, and nifedipine).
- Drink enough fluids. Unless your doctor suggests otherwise, drink at least 1.9 to 2.8 liters (around 12 to 19 glasses) of fluids every day. If you can’t tolerate water, you can also try citrus beverages, such as orange juice and lemon juice. These citrus beverages contain citrate that prevents the formation of mineralized crystals, which could lead to kidney stone formation.
- Take enough calcium that’s appropriate to your age. The best way to get the calcium you need is through the food you eat. Some of the foods that are rich in calcium are cheese, yogurt, seeds, almonds, kale, raw milk, sardines, broccoli, spinach, okra, and soybeans. When you’re deficient of calcium, it could increase the oxalate levels in your urine.
- Avoid taking high doses of vitamin C. People who take high doses of vitamin C supplements increases their risk of getting kidney stones.
- Reduce salt in your diet. A high-salt (or high-sodium) diet can contribute to the formation of kidney stones because it can increase the amount of calcium in your urine. The current recommended daily intake of sodium is 2,300 mg. 6
Or, you could add these essential oils to your current treatment plan (with your doctor’s approval, of course).
The Best Essential Oils for Kidney Stones
Lemon Essential Oil
Being heavily overweight or obese can double a person’s risk of kidney stones, finds study published in the Journal of Urology. 7 According to the study, around one out of 20 obese people has kidney stones, while one out of 40 normal weight people has kidney stones. Being mildly obese or extremely obese didn’t seem to affect the risk of developing this painful medical condition.
What’s the possible explanation? Researchers suggest that an increase in weight affects the body’s hormones. Another possible cause is lifestyle factors, such as diet.
Lemon juice is often used for weight loss because it minimizes overeating by increasing satiety. Apparently, lemon essential oil might also help you lose weight. In one study, the result has shown that inhalation of lemon essential oil may help dissolve fat by improving neurological activity. 8 This essential oil is also known for promoting a positive mood, supporting digestive health, and improving the body’s natural detoxification abilities—all these qualities are extremely helpful when you’re trying to lose weight.
The movement of kidney stones in your ureters—the thin tubes where your urine passes from your kidneys to your bladder—causes various signs and symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. In aromatherapy, pregnant women use lemon essential oil as an effective remedy for morning sickness. The findings in a small clinical trial have shown that inhalation of lemon essential oil significantly decreased the intensity of morning sickness symptoms, particularly nausea and vomiting. 9
- Add 3 to 5 drops of lemon essential oil and grapefruit essential oil to your home diffuser. Let your diffuser run for 15 to 30 minutes daily to support weight loss and reduce feelings of nausea and vomiting.
- Draxe recommends drinking warm or cool water containing honey and 1 to 2 drops of high-quality lemon essential oil two times a day to improve digestion.
It’s an essential oil that can irritate your skin when exposed to any source of ultraviolet radiation, such as the sun. Wait for at least 12 to 24 hours after using before going outdoors during the day. If you experience pain, blisters, itching, and/or burning sensations, stop using the essential oil and see your primary doctor or a skin doctor (dermatologist).
Helichrysum Essential Oil
Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum) essential oil is used together with lemon essential oil to lower the risk of kidney stones. They’re supposed to work by detoxifying the kidneys and liver. 10
The pain associated with kidney stones often varies in severity. This symptom happens if the stone gets stuck or travels down the ureter, which causes its soft internal muscles to contract occasionally. This can cause a great deal of pain. When inhaled frequently, helichrysum essential oil may offer quick relief in case a spasm starts due to its antispasmodic properties. 11
Research shows that heartburn tablets can increase the risk of kidney stones by approximately 12-percent. 12 Some of the popular heartburn medications include Prilosec, Zanprol, and Prevacid.
Helichrysum essential oil is good for preventing hyperacidity and acid reflux because of its cholagogic [koh-luh-goj-ik] actions. 13 It works by making sure that your body releases the proper amount of bile (for absorption and digestion of fats) and digestive enzymes in the intestines and stomach, Thus, it helps to neutralize excessive stomach acids and support proper food digestion.
You may urinate only small amounts of urine when you have kidney stones. Helichrysum essential oil is a diuretic, so it may help you to urinate more frequently or produce larger amounts of urine. 14 This essential oil would work better in removing toxic substances from your body, such as excess sodium (salt) and uric acid, if you drink ample amounts of water or citrusy beverages.
- Dilute 3 drops of helichrysum essential oil, 3 drops of lemon essential oil, and 2 drops of clary sage essential oil in 4 teaspoons of carrier oil, such as sweet almond oil and coconut oil. Stir well then spread a small amount on your inner forearm. Wait for 30 minutes to 24 hours for an allergic response. If there’s none, rub 1 to 2 drops over your lower abdomen twice daily.
- Put 1 to 2 drops of helichrysum essential oil and grapefruit essential oil to a glass of water, or in a veggie capsule. Consult your doctor before taking it internally to ensure your safety.
Helichrysum essential oil is generally non-toxic and non-irritating, except in people who have sensitive skin or are allergic to Asteraceae/Compositae plants (e.g., sunflower, daisy, chrysanthemum, and marigold). Those who are pregnant, breastfeeding, and/or suffering from a medical condition (e.g., hemorrhage, bile duct obstruction, and gallstones) should avoid or use this essential oil carefully.
Ginger Essential Oil
Ginger essential oil is considered one of the best essential oils for treating various digestive woes, such as diarrhea, stomach ache, indigestion, morning sickness, nausea, and vomiting. 15 16 These qualities allow it to treat nausea and vomiting caused by renal colic, which is an extremely painful condition that happens when stones block any portion of your urinary tract, such as the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra (the tube where your urine exits your body).
Large kidney stones usually cause renal colic, especially when they obstruct any portion of your ureter. Aside from severe pain, approximately 50-percent of sufferers will also have nausea and vomiting. 17
When people pass stones, the same nerves involved in the blockage of the urinary tract also stimulate the nearby organs, such as the digestive tract. 18 The stimulation of these nerve fibers then causes people to feel nauseous or have the urge to vomit, which often happens during an acute episode of renal colic.
Ginger essential oil also contains chemicals, such as zingibain, which relieves pain. It works by neutralizing the effects of prostaglandins. These hormones are naturally found in most tissues and organs, where they can cause pain, inflammation, and fever. 19
- Add 3 drops of ginger essential oil and 4 drops of bergamot essential oil to your home diffuser to relieve nausea. You could also put 1 to 2 drops of ginger essential oil to a cotton ball or paper towel if you don’t have a diffuser.
- To aid digestion and flush out toxins from your body, put a drop of ginger essential oil to your favorite tea or a glass of water. Drink it slowly. (Reminder: consult your primary doctor before ingesting any essential oil.)
Diluted ginger essential oil is possibly safe to apply to the skin if you use it appropriately and for a short period. In some people, it may irritate or burn their skin, especially when it’s exposed to the sun or other sources of ultraviolet radiation.
Taking ginger essential oil by mouth, even in small amounts, may not be safe. It could cause nausea, ulcers, and heartburn.
Peppermint Essential Oil
The health benefits of peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil are mostly attributed to menthol, which makes up 35 to 45 percent of the essential oil. 20 Because of the cooling effects of menthol, it’s an excellent remedy for pain and fever (especially in children). That’s why peppermint essential oil is often called a “refrigerant” due to its ability to produce an intensely cold sensation when applied to the skin or other tissues.
Some studies suggest that peppermint essential oil can treat nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness. In a study published in the cancer journal Ecancermedicalscience, patients undergoing chemotherapy experienced lower incidence of nausea and vomiting after 24 hours of using spearmint and peppermint essential oils. 21 The essential oils didn’t cause any side effects.
If your kidney stones are caused by your weight or diet, peppermint essential oil can be a great addition to your weight loss plan. A 2008 study has shown that inhaling peppermint essential oil every two hours resulted in lesser food cravings, which in turn led to markedly reduced calorie intake and better appetite control. 22
- Essential oil blend to suppress appetite: Add 3 to 5 drops of peppermint essential oil, grapefruit essential oil, and lemon essential oil to your diffuser. Diffuse this oil blend 30 minutes to 1 hour before a meal to prevent you from overeating. You can also dilute these essential oils in 6 teaspoons of carrier oil then rub 1 to 2 drops of the diluted oil on your temples and wrists.
- To reduce your fever, add 2 teaspoons of vodka or alcohol and 5 to 10 drops of peppermint essential oil, eucalyptus essential oil, and lavender essential oil to a basin filled with cool water. Sponge areas of your body with the highest temperature, such as your armpits, head, and groin, to reduce your temperature.
- When taking it internally to treat a heartburn—a risk factor for kidney stones—remember that a little goes a long way. Try mixing 1 to 2 drops of peppermint essential oil with 2 teaspoons of honey or coconut oil. (Again, consult your doctor before ingesting any essential oil.)
When used correctly, peppermint essential oil is likely safe. Some people might negatively react to it and experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties, depression, and skin rashes. Use this cautiously on the following people:
- Children younger than 7 years old
- Women who are pregnant or nursing
- Those who have health problems involving the digestive organs, such as heartburn and gallbladder disease
- Those who are taking medications for hyperacidity
Wintergreen Essential Oil
Wintergreen essential oil is a pale yellow or yellow-pink oil that’s extracted from the evergreen shrub Gaultheria fragrantissima (Indian wintergreen) or Gaultheria procumbens (American wintergreen).
Wintergreen essential oil contains high levels of methyl salicylate, which is an organic compound that’s closely associated with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). This organic compound is responsible for its ability to relieve pain and inflammation. Although it’s effective alone, a research suggests that a combination of peppermint and wintergreen essential oils offers far better pain relief and causes lesser side effects. 23
Aside from its aspirin-like effects, it’s also used to suppress hunger and food cravings. 24 Thus, it’s a great essential oil to use when you’re trying to shed the excess weight to lower your risk for kidney stones. Inhaling its therapeutic scent seems to be one of the best ways to use it for weight loss. You can apply it on your temples and chest, or you can add a few drops to your diffuser to prevent you from overeating.
- Topically: Never use wintergreen essential oil without first diluting it with a mild carrier oil. You can start with 1 to 3 drops then dilute it in 2 to 4 teaspoons of your preferred carrier oil (e.g., coconut oil, sweet almond oil, and jojoba oil). Perform a skin patch test before applying it to your skin.
- Inhalation therapy: Add 3 to 4 drops of wintergreen essential oil to a diffuser. You could add 1 to 2 drops to a handkerchief, organic cotton ball, or paper towel if you don’t have a diffuser. Wintergreen essential oil blends well with geranium, bergamot, cypress, basil, lavender, marjoram, lemongrass, and peppermint essential oils.
Be extremely cautious when using wintergreen essential oil. Since it contains high levels of methyl salicylate, it can be toxic. Consuming at least 2 to 6 teaspoons of this essential oil can have dangerous consequences. 25
Ingestion or topical application of wintergreen essential oil may cause swelling (face, throat, tongue, and/or lips), pain, hives, breathing problems, burns, and liver or kidney problems.
Avoid using this essential oil if the following conditions are present:
- You’re taking medicines for dissolving blood clots (anticoagulants)
- You’re allergic to anything with salicylate
- You have a bleeding disorder, such vitamin K deficiency, hemophilia, and severe liver disease
Nutmeg Essential Oil
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) isn’t just used to add flavor to your favorite holiday desserts and dishes. The essential oil extracted from this sweet spice is used in alternative medicine to treat various digestive problems, joint pain, and other health issues.
Nutmeg essential oil is one of the few essential oils that’s known to support kidney health. In fact, alternative practitioners often used it for curing kidney infections and dissolving kidney stones. 26 As a detoxifying agent, this essential oil helps in flushing out toxic substances from your liver and kidneys, such as uric acid, which reduces the risk of kidney stones.
If the pain is bothering you so much that you can’t sleep, you can use nutmeg essential oil, alone or in combination with other essential oils for sleep. This essential oil contains properties that have sedative and calming effects. 27
- Pour 3 drops of nutmeg essential oil and 5 drops of lavender essential oil to a diffuser. Let it run for 15 to 30 minutes before your bedtime. You could also pour a few drops to a cloth or on your pillow if you don’t have a diffuser. This will help you sleep better whenever you’re feeling nauseous or experiencing pain due to your kidney stones.
- Mix 4 drops of nutmeg essential oil, 4 drops of rosemary essential oil, and 5 drops of peppermint essential oil. Massage this oil blend on painful areas of your body, such as in your side and back and groin.
- Dilute 5 to 10 drops of nutmeg essential oil in 2 teaspoons of any natural emulsifier (e.g. vegetable glycerin and vodka). Add this to your bath water, and then wave your hands through the water to disperse the essential oils. Soak in it for 15 to 20 minutes to ease digestive problems, such as nausea, constipation, and irregular bowel movements (caused by pain medications).
There are no severe side effects associated with using nutmeg essential oil. However, if you use it in larger doses, you could sleep too much, vomit, convulse, and/or hallucinate. If you have any neurological disorder (e.g., epilepsy, migraine, and multiple sclerosis) or are pregnant, avoid using this essential oil.
Cinnamon Bark Essential Oil
Cinnamon bark essential oil has a yellow to reddish-brown color, with a musky and spicy scent. It has been used to remedy a long list of digestive problems, including morning sickness, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Cinnamon spice and oil are also used for regulating blood sugar levels and insulin release. 28 Thus, it’s a good remedy for kidney stones. When you have an unstable blood sugar, you tend to crave for sugary foods or drinks and overeat, which can lead to weight gain. Chronically elevated blood sugar levels can damage your organs, including your kidneys, and make your urine highly acidic.
- The S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) considers (high-quality) cinnamon essential oil safe to use internally. You can add a few drops in a veggie capsule, sauces, food seasonings, meat, carbonated beverages, and baked goods. You could try adding 1 to 2 drops of cinnamon bark essential oil and 2 teaspoons of honey in warm water.
- When using it topically, you can follow a 1:1 dilution ratio. However, you can add more carrier oil if slight skin irritation is present. Some of the essential oils that blend well with cinnamon bark essential oil are tea tree, grapefruit, bergamot, ginger, lavender, lemon, cardamom, geranium, clove, frankincense, and ylang ylang essential oils.
Use cinnamon bark essential oil carefully because it contains cinnamaldehyde, which is toxic if you use it in large amounts. Since it can be irritating, never use it undiluted or without performing a skin patch test. A few of its potential side effects are high blood pressure, headache, palpitations, and burns.
Grapefruit Essential Oil
Grapefruit essential oil doesn’t directly dissolve or flush out kidney stones. It’s mostly used for weight loss, which, as you already know, is a risk factor for kidney stones. Inhaling this essential oil stimulates a process that breaks down your body’s stored fat (lipolysis), which in turn helps you to suppress weight gain, study finds. 29
Do you have a sweet tooth? Grapefruit essential oil is known to suppress sugar cravings when you inhale it. 30 It’s important to reduce your sugar consumption because it increases your risk of kidney stones. Whenever you drink any sugary drink, the calcium in your urine increases just within 30 minutes after you consume it. It could stay elevated for 2 hours or more. The effect of sugary drinks is worse if you have hypercalciuria (increased calcium in the urine).
- There are different ways to use grapefruit essential oil for weight loss. For example, you can add 3 to 4 drops of the essential oil to your diffuser then diffuse it in your home or office.
- To suppress cravings for unhealthy foods, particularly sugary foods, dilute equal parts of grapefruit, lemon, peppermint, and cinnamon essential oil in a mild carrier oil (e.g., almond oil, coconut oil, and avocado oil). Apply the oil blend on your wrists and chest.
When used correctly, grapefruit essential oil is typically safe. However, since it’s classified as phototoxic, it’s important not to expose any area of your body to direct sunlight 12 to 24 hours after use. Always dilute it with a mild carrier oil and perform a skin test to rule out any possibility of an allergic reaction.
Seeking Medical Care
Essential oils don’t directly dissolve kidney stones. They help by treating the cause and alleviating the symptoms of this medical condition. They’re not substitutes to medical care, so set an appointment with your doctor if you suspect you have kidney stones.
Majority of small kidney stones don’t require invasive medical procedures and will usually pass after a couple of days or weeks. If they’re too large to be flushed out naturally, you may need to undergo treatment to remove them.
Don’t ignore kidney stones. One of the biggest risks of having kidney stones is you could develop a kidney infection, which can lead to a life-threatening infection called sepsis. According to Mayo Clinic, you should seek emergency care if you experience any of these symptoms:
- Severe and debilitating pain
- Abnormally high body temperature and chills due to pain – These indicate kidney infection.
- Nausea and vomiting due to pain
- Difficulty urinating
- Blood in your urine
Do you think essential oils for kidney stones are effective? Don’t forget to share your thoughts and natural remedies for kidney stones. I’d love to hear all of them!
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 Healthline: https://www.healthline.com/health/kidney-stones#types
 Ferraro PM and Curhan GC. (2017 Aug). Serum Uric Acid and Risk of Kidney Stones. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. Vol. 70, Issue 2, Pages 158-159. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28739125
 TheFreeDictionary.com: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/struvite
 Atul Sohgaura and Papiya Bigoniya. (2017). A Review on Epidemiology and Etiology of Renal Stone. American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development. Vol. 7, Issue 2, Pages 54-62. Retrieved from https://scialert.net/fulltextmobile/?doi=ajdd.2017.54.62
 Kate Devlin. (2010 Feb 20). Obesity ‘almost doubles chances of developing kidney stones.’ The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/7270648/Obesity-almost-doubles-chances-of-developing-kidney-stones.html
 Babar Ali, Naser Ali Al-Wabel, Saiba Shams, et al. (2015 Aug). Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Vol. 5, Issue 8, Pages 601-611. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169115001033
 Yavari Kia P, Safajou F, Shahnazi M, Nazemiyeh H. (2014 Mar). The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. Vol. 16, Issue 3; e14360. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24829772
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/helichrysum-essential-oil/
 BioFinest: https://biofinest.com/en/blog/28_helichrysum-essential-oil.html
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/ginger-essential-oil/
 Iñaki Lete and José Allué. (2016). The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy. Integrative Medicine Insights. Vol. 11, Pages 11-17. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818021/
 The University of Chicago: https://kidneystones.uchicago.edu/why-do-kidney-stones-cause-pain/
 Mercola: https://articles.mercola.com/herbal-oils/ginger-oil.aspx
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/peppermint-oil-uses-benefits/
 Tayarani-Najaran, Z., Talasaz-Firoozi, E., Nasiri, R., Jalali, N., & Hassanzadeh, M. (2013). Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha × piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Ecancermedicalscience, 7, 290. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2013.290
 J.A. Reed, Ben Wershing, Jude Almeida, and Bryan Raudenbush. (2008 Sept). Effects of peppermint scent on appetite control and caloric intake. Appetite. Vol. 51, Issue 2, Pages 393. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247357832_Effects_of_peppermint_scent_on_appetite_control_and_caloric_intake
 Patricia R. Hebert, PhD; E. Joan Barice, MD; and Charles H. Hennekens, MD, DrPH. (2014 Apr 1). Treatment of Low Back Pain: The Potential Clinical and Public Health Benefits of Topical Herbal Remedies. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Vol. 20, Issue 4, Pages 219-220. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995208/
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 Priyanga Ranasinghe, Sanja Perera, Mangala Gunatilake, et al. (2012). Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model. Pharmacognosy Research. Vol. 4, Issue 2, Pages 73-79. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326760/
 Niijima A and Nagai K. (2003 Nov). Effect of olfactory stimulation with flavor of grapefruit oil and lemon oil on the activity of sympathetic branch in the white adipose tissue of the epididymis. Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol.228, Issue 10, Pages 1190-2. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14610259
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/grapefruit-essential-oil/