Depending on the cause and its severity, some essential oils may provide relief from internal or external inflammation. But before you use any of them, make sure you get your doctor’s approval first. Meanwhile, to give you some ideas, here are some of the popular essential oils for inflammation, as well as suggestions on how to use them.
- 1 About Inflammation
- 2 The Best Essential Oils For Inflammation
- 2.1 Sandalwood Essential Oil
- 2.2 Eucalyptus Essential Oil
- 2.3 German Chamomile Essential Oil
- 2.4 Myrrh Essential Oil
- 2.5 Thyme Essential Oil
- 2.6 Lavender Essential Oil
- 2.7 Geranium Essential Oil
- 2.8 Frankincense Essential Oil
- 2.9 Rosemary Essential Oil
- 2.10 Patchouli Essential Oil
- 2.11 Early Diagnosis Is Important
In simple terms, inflammation is the body’s attempt to protect itself against harm by activating its army of white blood cells and other substances that could protect it from potentially infection-causing organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi.
The two types of inflammation are acute and chronic.
- Acute inflammation is your body’s initial response to harmful stimuli. When you cut your finger, for instance, your immune system sends white blood cells to protect that area. This process manifests itself as redness, increased heat, pain, loss of function, and swelling. The signs and symptoms of acute inflammation may last for a few days or weeks.
- Chronic inflammation could last for several months to years. This type of inflammation happens when your body responds to unwanted substances, such as toxins coming from cigarette smoke or cholesterol-rich plaques in the heart or blood vessels. Examples of medical conditions that can trigger chronic inflammation are tuberculosis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, chronic active hepatitis (CAH), and chronic ulcer.
The treatment for inflammation will depend on many factors, such as the root cause, general health of a person, age of a person, current medications a person is taking, and severity of the symptoms. Some of the things you could do to reduce inflammation are exercise, rest, medications (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs—aspirin and ibuprofen), and herbal remedies.
Important: Don’t self-medicate. Always consult a doctor to get the right diagnosis and treatments.
Now, if your condition is not serious, you may want to try natural alternatives, such as essential oils. Here are some of the best choices:
The Best Essential Oils For Inflammation
Sandalwood Essential Oil
Sandalwood essential oil is known for its sweet, sensual, and woody scent. However, it doesn’t just smell good. It also has numerous benefits, especially for the skin. It’s an antiseptic, astringent, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. Thus, it’s often used for treating wounds, infections, and itching associated with insect bites and inflammatory skin conditions (eczema, psoriasis, sunburn, etc.).
Alpha-santalol and beta-santalol are the major active compounds of sandalwood essential oil that are responsible for its ability to reduce inflammation. A study suggests that the essential oil can mimic the actions of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), which are drugs used for treating pain, inflammation, fever, and blood clots, but without the negative side effects. 1
And if your condition stresses you out, just pour a few drops of sandalwood essential oil in your diffuser. Or, dilute it and apply on your body for relaxation and better mood. Its relaxing and mood-enhancing effects are the reasons it’s extensively used in spiritual or meditative practices. 2
- Massage oil to soothe painful and inflamed muscles: Mix 6 drops of sandalwood essential oil, 3 drops of ylang-ylang essential oil, 1 drop of clove oil, and 5 teaspoons of carrier oil of your choice. Store in an amber glass bottle with a dispensing cap. Wait for 24 to 48 hours before using it.
Risks and Considerations:
Sandalwood essential oil is considered safe to use when inhaled or applied to the skin. Spread a thin layer of the diluted oil on your inner forearm then wait for 24 hours for allergic reactions.
As a standard precaution, people with liver disease or allergies, children, and breastfeeding or pregnant women are advised to avoid essential oils without the approval of a licensed doctor. Also, don’t expose your skin to direct sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet rays (e.g. tanning bed and blacklight) because it can cause photodermatitis. Wait for 24 hours after application to go outdoors.
Eucalyptus Essential Oil
Eucalyptus essential oil has been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat various ailments. So, it’s not surprising that you’ll find it in mouthwashes, creams, liniments, rubs, and inhalers. People usually use it for conditions associated with pain and inflammation, including joint problems (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis), mild muscle injury, and non-contagious respiratory diseases.
The essential oil of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) is made up of 60 to 70 percent 1,8-cineole, also known as eucalyptol. 3 Studies have shown that this organic compound has anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, and pain-reducing actions. 4 These biological activities of 1,8-cineole make it an effective remedy for inflammatory lung conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchitis, and sinusitis. 5
- Suffering from inflamed joints or sore muscles? Use this blend: add 5 drops of eucalyptus essential oil and 4 drops of marjoram essential oil in 4 teaspoons of carrier oil (e.g. moringa oil and coconut oil) one drop at a time. Massage into the affected areas.
- If you have a respiratory infection, such as sinusitis, steam inhalation is a better choice to beat it. Simply add 3 to 4 drops of eucalyptus essential oil to your diffuser. You can also use a bowl of hot, non-scalding water if you don’t have a diffuser. Cover your head with a towel, bend over the bowl, and hold that position for at least 5 minutes. Don’t forget to close your eyes.
Risks and Considerations:
Eucalyptus essential oil is usually non-irritating and non-sensitizing, but there’s still a possibility that a few people might be allergic to it. So, always use it in small amounts and diluted in a mild carrier oil.
If you plan to take this by mouth, speak with your doctor first. When you take more than 3.5ml (0.6gm) of the essential oil, you could suffer severe side effects, such as breathing difficulties, digestive problems, weakened muscles, dizziness, or worse, death.
German Chamomile Essential Oil
German chamomile essential oil is a medicine cabinet must-have. It has many remarkable medicinal properties, but it’s best known for its strong anti-inflammatory action. Compared to Roman chamomile essential oil, the essential oil extracted from German chamomile has the highest concentration of azulene, an aromatic chemical compound that provides its characteristic dark blue color. 6
Azulene has calming, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory actions. That’s why chamomile essential oil, particularly German chamomile essential oil, is an effective remedy for a variety of irritating and inflammatory conditions, such as mild burns, eczema, mouth sores, and arthritis. Since it’s absorbed well by the skin, it can work better to reduce inflammation, fight infections, and soothe painful joints. 7
- If you’re experiencing inflammation of your respiratory tract, the best way to use German chamomile essential oil is by inhalation. You can use a diffuser, vaporizer, or bowl of hot water for that purpose. If you want, you can add other essential oils for respiratory problems, such as spike lavender essential oil, eucalyptus essential oil, and tea tree oil.
- To relieve inflamed joints or skin, massage this blend on the affected area: 2 drops of German chamomile essential oil and 2 drops of peppermint essential oil diluted in 2 teaspoons of carrier oil. Perform a skin patch test prior to liberal application.
Risks and Considerations:
There are no serious side effects associated with German chamomile essential oil. However, it’s advisable not to use this on pregnant women, children, and people with allergies, particularly to Compositae plants (e.g. sunflowers, daisies, chrysanthemums, marigolds, and dandelions). Always test a small amount on a discreet area of your skin, such as your inner forearm, and don’t wash it for 24 hours to see if there’s an allergic reaction.
Myrrh Essential Oil
Myrrh essential oil is a product of the resin of the Commiphora myrrha tree. For centuries, it was used for many purposes, such as embalming, food flavoring, perfume making, and treating wounds and other ailments, to name a few. Today, a few studies have shown that it’s a natural painkiller and anti-inflammatory agent. 8
Myrrh essential oil is most effective against pain and inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), a common and chronic disorder that affects the large bowel (large intestine). A recent study published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine suggest that it might help treat two types of IBS, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 9 Terpenoids and sesquiterpenes are two of its bioactive compounds that are responsible for its ability to ease pain and inflammation. 10
- Dilute 3 drops of myrrh essential oil and 3 drops of peppermint essential oil in 3 teaspoons of almond oil (or cream if you prefer). If you’re suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), rub the mixture on different acupressure points for stomach problems, such as above and below your belly button, the inner side of your foot (four fingers away from your big toe), and on the outside edge of your leg (three fingers below the knee).
- For inhalation therapy, add 3 to 4 drops of myrrh essential oil into a diffuser or bowl of hot water. You could add other essential oils into the diffuser, such as frankincense, lavender, eucalyptus, sandalwood, jasmine, and clove, which are all compatible with myrrh essential oil.
Risks and Considerations:
Normally, myrrh essential oil is well-tolerated by most adults. People with sensitive skin should be extra cautious when using this topically because it could cause contact dermatitis. If taken by mouth, it may cause diarrhea, stomach ache, and other digestive issues, although they’re rarely serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, stop using myrrh essential oil.
Avoid using it on children since there are not enough studies confirming its effects on them. It’s not also for pregnant women (because it can cause a miscarriage), people with medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and blood disorders), and people who are taking anticoagulants (e.g. warfarin). As always, don’t forget to consult a qualified healthcare provider before using this essential oil.
Thyme Essential Oil
The essential oil comes from the leaf of the Thymus vulgaris herb. Thymol, gamma-terpinene, and para-cymene are three of its major chemical compounds that are responsible for its variety of uses and health benefits. 11 Thymol and para-cymene specifically have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and antibacterial activities.
When applied on the wound, thyme essential oil can help reduce the inflammation around it. It also helps increase the flow of blood to the wound site to speed up its healing. Others use the essential oil to get rid of the pain and swelling associated with bug bites, bee stings, and inflamed joints and muscles. 12
In a study published in the Journal of Lipid Research, the researchers examined six essential oils (clove, rose, fennel, eucalyptus, bergamot, and thyme) and discovered that all have anti-inflammatory activities. 13 Out of the six, it was thymol that was the most effective in reducing COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) levels by almost 75 percent. COX-2 is an enzyme that plays a key role in pain and inflammation.
- To use topically, dilute 2 drops of thyme essential oil in 2 teaspoons of carrier oil. Thyme essential oil can be irritating, so it’s important to dilute it first with a high-quality vegetable oil before putting it on your skin. Apply the oil on the inflamed and/or painful areas of your body, such as your joints.
- You could also use diluted thyme essential oil for treating sores and wounds. Its anti-inflammatory and antiseptic actions will help speed up their healing and prevent infection. To enhance its effect, add essential oils with antibacterial and healing properties, such as lavender, myrrh, clove, rosemary, oregano, frankincense, eucalyptus, and lemon.
Risks and Considerations:
Thyme essential oil offers multiple benefits, but it also has negative side effects that you should consider. A few of its possible side effects are dizziness, irritated skin, and vomiting. Use a mild carrier oil (e.g. olive oil, coconut oil, and almond oil) to dilute the essential oil and make it less irritating.
This is not for:
- Pregnant or breastfeeding women
- People with hypersensitive skin or allergies, particularly to sage, lavender, basil, rosemary, and other plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family
- People suffering from certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, bradycardia (slow heart rate), gastrointestinal issues (e.g. indigestion, gastritis, and stomach ulcers), and thyroid-related diseases
Lavender Essential Oil
One of the gentlest and widely used essential oils, lavender essential oil has numerous benefits for the mind and body. Always keep it on hand to improve sleep, eliminate infection-causing germs (bacteria, fungi, and viruses), and ease itching, pain, and inflammation.
Lavender essential oil’s major active compound, linalyl acetate, has anti-inflammatory activity. 14 However, not all species of lavender is suitable for treating inflammatory conditions. The essential oil extracted from True Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is the best choice because it has the highest level of esters. 15 Some of the inflammatory conditions that may positively respond to lavender essential oil’s medicinal compounds are arthritis, sore muscles, mild burns (including sunburns), sprains, insect bites, acne, and inflammatory skin conditions (eczema and psoriasis). 16
- Add 4 drops of lavender essential oil to 2 teaspoons of carrier oil. Perform a skin patch test before putting on the affected area in generous amount. Depending on the cause, you could also add other essential oils to achieve the therapeutic effect that you want. For instance, for mild burns, you could use sandalwood, frankincense, eucalyptus, and peppermint essential oils.
- If your condition is bothering you too much, getting some rest could help. Simply add 6 to 8 drops of lavender essential oil to your oil burner or diffuser and inhale deeply to receive the relaxing and sleep-inducing benefits of the essential oil.
Risks and Considerations:
Lavender essential oil is generally non-irritating, non-toxic, and non-sensitizing. Although it rarely happens, it may still cause a hypersensitivity reaction in a few people. Always test the essential oil on a small, inconspicuous area of your skin to see if you’re allergic to it.
Lavender essential oil is contraindicated to:
- People who are taking medications that cause drowsiness or need to engage in activities that require mental alertness (e.g. driving)
Geranium Essential Oil
Like with most essential oils for inflammation, geranium essential oil has chemical components that can support mental and physical health. Inhaling its rose-like, citrusy scent can uplift your mood, lessen fatigue, and calm your senses. On the skin, it may help relieve pain, inflammation, and infection caused by joint diseases and dermatological issues, such as burns, eczema, and dermatitis.
A study published in the journal The Libyan Journal of Medicine suggests that geranium essential oil could be an effective ingredient for anti-inflammatory medications. 17 Based on their data, the essential oil can lower inflammation in the body while producing fewer side effects compared to cholesterol and joint pain medications.
When you’re under a lot of stress, it can raise the level of your cortisol hormones, creating inflammation. This, in turn, leads to excessive production of free radicals, which could also cause more inflammation inside the body, thus creating a vicious cycle.
Antioxidants, which are present in certain foods, supplements, and topical skin care products, work by neutralizing the harmful effects of free radicals. Several studies have shown that geranium essential oil may have a strong antioxidant activity that’s comparable to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). 18 However, more studies are still needed to confirm if its antioxidant activity is present when it’s applied on the skin.
- For treating inflammation due to skin diseases, combine 4 drops of geranium essential oil and 2 teaspoons of coconut oil.
- You can try this blend if you’re suffering from inflamed and painful joints or muscles: 5 drops of geranium essential oil, 4 drops of rosemary essential oil, 4 drops of clove essential oil, and 3 drops of eucalyptus essential oil in 8 teaspoons of almond oil (or other carrier oils you prefer).
- To relieve stress and uplift your mood, add 3 drops of geranium essential oil and 3 drops of grapefruit essential oil to your diffuser. Or, dilute the essential oils in 3 teaspoons of carrier oil. Add 1 to 2 drops of the mixture to your palm. Rub your hands together, cup them over your mouth and nose, and then breathe in deeply.
Risks and Considerations:
Geranium essential oil is more appropriate for short-term use since it’s long-term effects are still unknown. As with most essential oils, pregnant or breastfeeding women, children, and people with hypersensitive skin and medical problems should avoid using this essential oil, unless with the approval of a qualified doctor.
Always purchase your essential oils from a trustworthy supplier or online reseller. Geranium essential oil is often mixed with other essential oils, such as lemongrass and cedarwood.
Frankincense Essential Oil
Another great essential oil for inflammation is frankincense (Boswellia carteri). When diffused or inhaled, the essential oil’s earthy, spicy, and fruity aroma can chase away feelings of stress, anxiety, anger, and mental fatigue because of its calming and sedative properties.
It has also shown promise in markedly reducing painful and serious inflammation. Thus, it’s a good remedy for inflammation-related conditions that involve the joints, muscles, and tendons (fibrous tissues that connect muscles to bones).
In a research by Cardiff University, researchers discovered that it relieves inflammation in arthritis by suppressing the production of certain inflammatory molecules (such as T and B lymphocytes, mononuclear cells, mast cells, and macrophages). As a result, it prevents the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage tissue in joints, which cause arthritis and other joint problems. 19 Other studies suggest frankincense extract could relieve asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), and other inflammatory conditions. 20
- To improve symptoms of joint pain, muscle aches, and other types of external inflammatory conditions, dilute 10 drops of frankincense essential oil, 8 drops of peppermint essential oil, and 5 drops of sweet orange essential oil in 4 tablespoons of sweet almond oil. Store in a dark glass bottle with a dispensing cap or dropper. Massage around 1 teaspoon of the blend into the affected area.
Risks and Considerations:
Frankincense essential oil has no reported severe side effects. However, in some instances, it might cause mild skin rashes, hyperacidity, stomach ache, and nausea.
When purchasing frankincense essential oil, always check if it’s intended for internal use. It’s usually easy to spot a high-quality frankincense essential oil if you look at the color. It should be clear and silvery, with a hint of green.
Rosemary Essential Oil
Rosemary essential oil is not just a hair grower, but it’s also a potent anti-inflammatory. That’s why it may possibly help treat certain conditions associated with inflammation. One of the reasons for this benefit of rosemary essential oil is its high antioxidant ORAC value of 11,070. 21 The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) is a measurement unit for the antioxidant content of foods.
Carnosol is a phenolic diterpene that’s present in the leaves of the rosemary plant. This chemical component of rosemary is responsible for its ability to fight cancer and inflammation-causing free radicals. 22
When our bodies process the oxygen we inhale, our bodies undergo a process of oxidation. However, there are instances when our bodies are unable to cope with the increased production of free radicals, a process called oxidative stress. Oxidative stress triggers inflammation inside the body and causes many of the leading chronic diseases in modern society. Antioxidants can neutralize these harmful effects of excess free radicals, including chronic inflammation.
In a small study published in the journal Psychiatry Research, the result showed that a five-minute inhalation of rosemary and lavender essential oils markedly reduced the level of cortisol hormones, also called as the stress hormones, in the saliva of volunteers. 23 By lowering the amount of cortisol hormones in your body, you could protect yourself from chronic diseases and inflammation associated with oxidative stress.
- Use rosemary essential oil as a massage oil to treat inflammatory skin problems. Combine 3 to 5 drops and 2 teaspoons of carrier oil then massage on the area that’s inflamed and/or painful.
- To boost your body’s natural defenses and fight stress and negative emotions, diffuse 3 to 4 drops of rosemary essential oil. Or, put 1 to 2 drops of diluted rosemary essential oil in the palm of your hand, rub your palms together, and then place both hands over your nose and mouth. Inhale deeply. You could also add other essential oils that are relaxing and immunity-boosting, such as lemon, lavender, and peppermint essential oils.
Risks and Considerations:
Rosemary essential oil is safe to use on the skin of most adults. However, it may cause allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin inflammation caused by exposure to irritants or allergy-causing substances. Before using it on your skin, dilute it in the carrier oil you prefer and perform a skin patch test.
Never take the rosemary essential oil internally because it could have life-threatening effects. Possible side effects include spasms, vomiting, nausea, and digestion-related problems.
This essential oil is not for children, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and people with blood sugar problems. Ask your doctor before using this topically or taking it by mouth.
Patchouli Essential Oil
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) belongs to the same family as sage, mint, and lavender. The essential oil extracted from this plant is normally pale yellow or brown with a thick consistency. It has a strong, musky, and earthy aroma with a hint of sweetness. In Asian folk medicine, patchouli essential oil is used for treating oily scalp, dandruff, acne, dry skin, and eczema. 24
Patchouli essential oil is considered an antiphlogistic. Meaning, it can soothe inflammation inside or outside the body. Some of the inflammatory conditions that it may help treat include arthritis, gout, and skin infections or irritations. 25 It’s especially effective in soothing inflammation if it’s caused by a fever. 26
The main chemical components of patchouli essential that are responsible for its medicinal benefits are patchoulol, alpha-Bulnesene, alpha-Patchoulene, beta-Patchoulene, alpha-Guaiene, Caryophyllene, Seychellene, Norpatchoulenol, and Pogostol. 27 Alpha-Bulnesene and Caryophyllene are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.
- If the inflammation is caused by a fever, use this blend: Mix 8 drops of patchouli essential oil, 6 drops of peppermint essential oil, and 6 to 7 teaspoons of carrier oil in a small dish. Perform a skin patch test, and if the result is negative, apply the blend to the back of your neck, forehead, and bottoms of your feet. Reapply the blend every 10 to 30 minutes until the inflammation and/or fever goes down.
- Essential oils that complement well with patchouli essential oil are myrrh, lemongrass, sandalwood, lavender, bergamot, frankincense, clary sage, geranium, and ginger.
Risks and Considerations:
Although it’s generally safe to use topically, patchouli essential oil still carries a risk of allergic reaction. Always dilute it in a mild carrier oil then test a small amount on your skin to know if you’re allergic to it. As much as possible, don’t ingest it, especially if you have digestive issues.
Patchouli essential oil can cause photosensitivity reaction, which is caused by direct exposure to sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet radiation. Cover up the area where you applied the essential oil or avoid going outdoors during the day for 24 hours.
Early Diagnosis Is Important
These are just some of the essential oils for treating inflammation you could use. Try one or more of these essential oils to see which ones will best work for your unique needs.
However, it’s important to take note that you shouldn’t use them as replacements for medical treatments. Always speak with a licensed doctor regarding your condition. The sooner you seek help, the sooner your doctor can pinpoint what’s causing the inflammation and prescribe the appropriate medications and/or medical procedures.
Don’t forget to leave your comments below. I’d love to hear your thoughts and advice.
 Sharma M, Levenson C, Bell RH, et al. (2014 Jun). Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine/chemokine production in skin cells by sandalwood oils and purified a-santalol and ß-santalol. Phytotherapy Research. Vol. 28, Issue 6, Pages 925-32. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24318647
 Eucalyptus Oil: http://www.eucalyptusoil.com/eucalyptus-oils/eucalyptus-globulus
 F. A. Santos and V. S. N. Rao. (2000 June). Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. Phytotherapy Research. Vol. 14, Issue 4, Pages 240-244. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1099-1573(200006)14:4%3C240::AID-PTR573%3E3.0.CO;2-X/full
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 Complete Aromatherapy Handbook: Essential Oils for Radiant Health, June 30, 1991, pp.83-85. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=43HyCe20IvMC&pg=PA83&dq=german+chamomile+oil&hl=en&sa=X&ei=trEjVcqgN47woAS1zYCIAg&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=german%20chamomile%20oil&f=false
 Su, S., Wang, T., Chen, T., et al. (2011). Cytotoxicity activity of extracts and compounds from Commiphora myrrha resin against human gynecologic cancer cells. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. Vol. 5, Issue 8, pages 1382-1389. Retrieved from https://essentialoilexperts.com/myrrh-essential-oil/
 Fatani, A.J., Alrojayee, F.S., Parmar, M.Y., et al. (2016). Myrrh attenuates oxidative and inflammatory processes in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. Vol. 12, Issue 2, Pages 730-738. Retrieved from https://www.spandidos-publications.com/etm/12/2/730
 Johanna Grassmann, Susanne Hippeli, and Erich F. Elstner. (2002 Jun-Aug). Plant’s defence and its benefits for animals and medicine: role of phenolics and terpenoids in avoiding oxygen stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. Vol. 40, Issue 6-8, Pages 471-478. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0981942802013955#!
 Doterra: https://www.doterra.com/US/en/blog/spotlight-thyme-oil
 Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz, Raquel Kummer, Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva, et al. (2012). Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 2012, 657026. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3418667/
 Hotta M, Nakata R, Katsukawa M, et al. (2010 Jan). Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression. Journal of Lipid Research. Vol. 51, Issue 1, Pages 132-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19578162
 Peana AT, D’Aquila PS, Panin F, et al. (2002 Dec). Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine. Vol. 9, Issue 8, Pages 721-6. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587692
 West Coast Institute of Aromatherapy: https://www.westcoastaromatherapy.com/lavender-vs-lavandin-vs-spike-lavender-essential-oils/
 Boukhatem, M. N., Kameli, A., Ferhat, M. A., Saidi, F., & Mekarnia, M. (2013). Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs. The Libyan Journal of Medicine, 8, 10.3402/ljm.v8i0.22520. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.3402/ljm.v8i0.22520
 About Essential Oils: https://abouteos.com/geranium-essential-oil/
 Cardiff University. (2011, August 4). A wise man’s treatment for arthritis: Frankincense?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110621121316.htm
 Rafie Hamidpour, Soheila Hamidpour, Mohsen Hamidpour, and Mina Shahlari. (2013 Oct-Dec). Frankincense (乳香 Rǔ Xiāng; Boswellia Species): From the Selection of Traditional Applications to the Novel Phytotherapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Serious Diseases. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. Vol. 3, Issue 4, Pages 221-226. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924999/
  Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/rosemary-oil-uses-benefits/
 Toshiko Atsumi and Keiichi Tonosaki. (2007 Feb 28). Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva. Psychiatry Research. Vol. 150, Issue 1, Pages 89-96. Retrieved from http://www.psy-journal.com/article/S0165-1781(06)00011-4/fulltext
  New Directions Aromatics Blog: https://www.newdirectionsaromatics.com/blog/products/all-about-patchouli-oil.html
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/patchouli-oil/