Almost all people, at some point in their lives, will have heartburn. The Florida Hospital estimates that over 40% of Americans suffer from heartburn at least once every month. 1 With effective treatment, heartburn can go away completely without causing serious complications. If you’re interested in natural remedies for heartburn, these essential oils might offer some relief.
- 1 What You Need to Know About Heartburn
- 2 What are the best treatments for heartburn?
- 3 A Closer Look at Essential Oils for Relieving Heartburn Symptoms
- 4 Should You Be Worried About Heartburn?
What You Need to Know About Heartburn
Heartburn is also known as pyrosis, GERD (gastroesophageal reflux), acid reflux, and acid indigestion. When you have heartburn, you often feel a painful and burning sensation in your chest, just underneath your breastbone (sternum). This happens when the acid content of your stomach backs up into your esophagus, a muscular tube that connects your throat with your stomach.
Most people experience heartburn symptoms at night. Only 20% report feeling symptoms during the day. 2 Aside from the burning sensation in your chest, you may also experience the following signs and symptoms:
- A bitter taste in your mouth or the back of your throat
- Persistent cough
- Unable to swallow liquids or foods with ease
- Persistent sore throat
- Burning ache or gnawing in your upper abdomen, which becomes worse or better after you eat
- Persistent hoarseness or swollen voice box (laryngitis)
What causes heartburn?
The problem lies with the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), a bundle of muscles surrounding the distal end of the esophagus, where it’s directly attached to the stomach. When your LES becomes weak—usually due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)—the contents in your stomach (enzymes, acid, and digested food) come back out and rise into your esophagus. This causes the painful, burning feeling in your chest or throat.
Common heartburn triggers include:
- Eating too much – Try to eat five to six smaller meals evenly distributed throughout the day.
- Consuming foods and drinks that prevent your lower esophageal sphincter to fully tighten – Examples are greasy and fatty foods, spicy foods, citrus fruits, caffeinated drinks, red wine, chocolate, carbonated drinks, tomatoes (including tomato-based sauces), and mint.
- Lying down after eating – To avoid this problem, wait for at least two hours after eating before you lie down. This is enough time for your stomach to digest your food and empty its contents into your small intestine.
- Being under a lot of stress – Being stressed out or sleep deprived could cause your stomach to produce more digestive juices, triggering heartburn.
Who are more likely to experience heartburn symptoms?
- Smokers – The nicotine in cigarettes and tobaccos causes the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to relax.
- People who are overweight or obese – Being heavy for one’s height is a known cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, it doesn’t mean normal-weight people won’t have heartburn. According to study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, tiny changes in weight can still increase your risk of heartburn. 3
- Pregnant women – Around 50% or more of pregnant women, especially those who are in their third trimester, report heartburn. 4 When you’re pregnant, your body produces extraordinarily high levels of progesterone. This hormone relaxes smooth muscles, including the muscles surrounding the low end of your esophagus.
- People with hiatal hernia – Hiatal hernia refers to a condition in which a small portion of the stomach bulges up into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm. Some people with this condition may experience heartburn related to GERD.
What are the best treatments for heartburn?
Occasional heartburn is not a cause of worry. Your doctor may prescribe over-the-counter antacids to neutralize the acid made by your stomach to reduce heartburn and its associated symptoms. If antacids don’t work, your doctor may prescribe H2 blockers, which are a group of medicines that decreases the amount of acid your stomach lining produces. Examples of H2 blockers are cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), and nizatidine (Axid).
You can manage heartburn at home by making a few changes in your diet and lifestyle. Here are some of the things that you could do to prevent heartburn or alleviate its symptoms:
- Write down the foods and drinks that trigger your heartburn in a diary, so you know exactly what to avoid.
- See your doctor if you’re overweight or obese. He or she will help you develop a healthy weight loss plan.
- Chew gum after meals to reduce heartburn and acid reflux symptoms. This helps neutralize and decrease the amount of stomach acid in your esophagus by stimulating the production of saliva and encouraging frequent swallowing.
- If you smoke, quit.
- Avoid places where you’re going to be exposed to secondhand smoke.
- Use portion control tricks to avoid overeating. For instance, instead of using a 12-inch plate, try using a 7-inch plate.
- Don’t wear tight-fitting clothes, especially when you’re eating.
- Don’t eat two hours before your bedtime.
- Don’t lie down after eating.
- Elevate the head of your bed by 6 to 8 inches using heavy-duty bed risers (plastic or wood). Wedge pillows for acid reflux may also offer relief.
- Limit your exposure to stressful situations or toxic people. If you can’t, learn effective de-stressing techniques, such as meditation, getting enough sleep every night, and deep breathing exercises.
- You could also use essential oils to manage heartburn. Some of the essential oils that can help relieve heartburn symptoms are ginger, marjoram, peppermint, lavender, grapefruit, lemon, clove, lemongrass, and fennel essential oils.
A Closer Look at Essential Oils for Relieving Heartburn Symptoms
Ginger Essential Oil
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil has a long list of benefits. It’s best known for its ability to treat stomach and bowel related problems, such as nausea, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, and morning sickness.
The results of a study published in the Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology have shown that ginger essential oil is an effective gastric ulcer remedy. 5 People with gastric ulcers often suffer from heartburn, nausea, and vomiting.
Inhaling the warm, spicy fragrance of ginger essential oil is a great way to relieve stress and anxiety. 6 In Ayurveda, this essential oil is used to help people cope with emotional problems.
Suggestions for Use
- Diffusion: Add 3 drops of ginger essential oil, 2 drops of lavender essential oil, and 2 drops of bergamot essential oil to a diffuser of your choice. This blend will help relieve stress and anxiety.
- Other essential oils that combine well with ginger essential oil are frankincense, bergamot, geranium, palmarosa, rosemary, rose, patchouli, vetiver, sandalwood, ylang ylang, and cedarwood atlas.
It’s typically safe when inhaled or applied to the skin (if diluted properly). Since it reacts negatively to ultraviolet rays, avoid exposing the area where you applied it to direct sunlight and man-made ultraviolet sources (e.g., tanning bed and UV lamp).
Be extra careful when taking this internally, especially in large amounts. It may cause various side effects, such as nausea, heartburn, and ulcers.
Marjoram Essential Oil
Marjoram (Origanum majorana) essential oil comes from the fresh and dried leaves of the herb itself. Aside from spicing up dishes, it can help calm your senses and promote positive feelings when inhaled or used topically.
You could also use marjoram essential oil to ease the painful, burning feeling in your chest or upper abdomen. It contains chemical compounds, such as terpinene-4-ol and p-Cymene, which can reduce pain and inflammation. You can use it alone or combined with other essential oils, such as peppermint, black pepper, and lavender essential oils, which perfectly work together to significantly reduce pain. 7
Unlike the popular belief, heartburn is not caused by increased production of stomach acid. It’s the exact opposite. Decreased production of stomach acid could cause diarrhea, constipation, flatulence, bloating, heartburn, or even food poisoning.
Marjoram essential oil is used as a digestive aid. 8 It works in two ways: First, it stimulates the secretion of saliva, bile (produced by your liver), and stomach digestive enzymes. Second, it stimulates the contraction and relaxation of the muscles of your intestines to push digested food down the tract.
Suggestions for Use
- External use: Dilute 3 drops of marjoram essential oil and 3 drops of lemon essential oil in 4 teaspoons of mild carrier oil, such as almond oil and coconut oil. Apply a drop or two of the oil on your temples, wrists, and/or back of your neck to ease feelings of stress and help you sleep better.
- Diffusion: Add 3 to 4 drops of marjoram essential oil to a diffuser of your choice.
- Other essential oils that combine well with marjoram essential oil are lavender, bergamot, rosemary, clary sage, black pepper, Roman chamomile, cypress, and myrtle.
Marjoram essential oil is relatively safe if you use it appropriately and for a short time only. Long-term use of this essential oil could increase your risk of cancer and other health issues. This is not recommended for children (under the age of 7), pregnant or breastfeeding women, and people with an existing medical condition.
Peppermint Essential Oil
Peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil is used topically or internally to alleviate occasional digestive issues, such as indigestion. It can also treat heartburn when combined with caraway oil, according to a preliminary research. 9
Ate too much fatty foods? Taking an herbal preparation with peppermint essential oil might help by stimulating the flow of bile, which is produced by the liver to help with the digestion and absorption of fat. This allows it to prevent or treat heartburn caused by fatty foods.
Warning: Avoid using peppermint essential oil internally if you have a medical condition that weakens the muscles at the low end of your esophagus (food pipe), such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Suggestions for Use
- External use: Dilute 3 drops of peppermint essential oil and 2 drops of lavender essential oil in 2 teaspoons of carrier oil, such as coconut oil and almond oil. Massage 1 to 2 drops on your stomach and other areas of your body to minimize stress and stomach pain.
- Diffusion: Add 3 to 4 drops of peppermint essential oil and grapefruit essential oil to a diffuser of your choice. Diffuse for 10 to 20 minutes every day to help you feel fuller quicker and stop cravings.
- Other essential oils that combine well with peppermint essential oil are lavender, rosemary, lemon, juniper berry, oregano, cypress, marjoram, geranium, eucalyptus, grapefruit, and tea tree oil.
Aside from children and pregnant or breastfeeding women, peppermint essential oil is not for people who are taking medicines for hyperacidity (e.g., omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) and have health problems (e.g., diabetes and gallbladder disease). In some people, this essential oil may cause pain in the abdomen, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, depression, rashes, and breathing problems.
Lavender Essential Oil
Researchers of a study published in the Internal Medicine interviewed around 12, 653 GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) sufferers. They found out that almost half of them reported stress as the main reason for their worsened symptoms, even when they were on medication. 10 Heartburn is often caused by GERD.
In aromatherapy, lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil is often used as an alternative treatment for sleeping problems, anxiety, and stress. A study finds that it’s equally effective as lorazepam (Ativan), a medication for anxiety. 11 However, unlike lorazepam, it doesn’t seem to cause sedative effects or addiction.
It’s also an effective painkiller and works similarly to tramadol, an opioid pain medication. 12 If you’re feeling any pain in your upper abdomen or chest, you may want to apply a few drops of this essential oil to those areas.
Suggestions for Use
- External use: Dilute 3 drops of lavender, 2 drops of chamomile, and 2 drops of wintergreen essential oils in 4 to 6 teaspoons of carrier oil. Apply a drop or two on your abdomen to relieve stomach pain.
- Diffusion: Add 4 drops of lavender essential oil and 3 drops of rosemary essential oil to a diffuser of your choice. Diffuse for 10 to 20 minutes every day or when necessary. This blend will help ease mental stress, while improving your brain function.
- Other essential oils that combine well with lavender essential oil are eucalyptus, peppermint, rosemary, geranium, lemongrass, clove, patchouli, grapefruit, rosemary, tea tree oil, lemon, cypress, chamomile, clary sage, thyme, bergamot, vetiver, black pepper, and pine.
Lavender essential oil is gentle and rarely causes severe side effects. However, it’s not for everyone. Pre-puberty boys and people taking sedatives or anti-anxiety medications should refrain from using this essential oil. If you experience chills, headaches, nausea, and/or vomiting, stop using it and see your doctor.
Grapefruit Essential Oil
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) has been used for decades to help people lose weight. Today, grapefruit essential oil is gaining popularity for the same reason. Based on a study published in the Experimental Biology and Medicine, just inhaling this essential oil seems to help break down the fat stored by the body, thus preventing weight gain. 13
Consuming small amounts of healthy sources of sugar, such as pure honey and maple syrup, doesn’t automatically mean you’re going to suffer from heartburn. It’s when you consume sugar found in or combined with trigger foods or drinks that you may experience heartburn. When sugar cravings attack, or even before you have them, diffuse grapefruit essential oil to suppress these cravings.
Suggestions for Use
- External use: To suppress cravings, add 4 drops of grapefruit essential oil, 3 drops of patchouli essential oil, and 2 drops of peppermint essential oil to 4 to 6 teaspoons of mild carrier oil. Rub a few drops on your temples, chest, wrists, and beneath your nose to control your appetite.
- Diffusion: Add 3 to 4 drops of grapefruit essential to a diffuser of your choice. Diffuse for 10 to 20 minutes every day to uplift your mood and relieve stress.
- Other essential oils that combine well with grapefruit essential oil are bergamot, rosemary, peppermint, lavender, geranium, ylang ylang, frankincense, and basil.
Grapefruit essential oil triggers photosensitivity reactions when applied to the skin. As much as possible, avoid going outdoors during the day within 12 to 24 hours after topical application. If that’s not possible, cover up and limit your sun exposure.
Lemon Essential Oil
Lemon (Citrus limon) essential oil is soothing in nature. Taking a whiff of this essential oil can ease anxiety, dizziness, and fatigue. Thus, it would make a good remedy for heartburn from stress or anxiety.
It’s considered a carminative, which means it relieves gas. 14 Although not yet proven by scientific studies, gas and heartburn may somehow be connected because they have several contributing factors in common. 15
Lemon essential oil might also help you shed the extra pounds. It contains d-limonene, which supposedly supports a healthy metabolism. A study published in the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine suggests that inhalation of this essential oil stimulates fat break down by improving the activity of the nervous system (which includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves). 16
Suggestions for Use
- External use: Dilute 2 drops of lemon essential oil, 2 drops of fennel essential oil, and 1 drop of cardamom essential oil in 2 to 4 teaspoons of mild carrier oil. Apply a drop or two on your lower back, inner wrists, and tummy to relieve heartburn symptoms and aid digestion.
- Diffusion: Add 4 drops of lavender essential oil, 3 drops of lemon essential oil, and 1 drop of vetiver essential oil to a diffuser of your choice. Diffuse for 10 to 20 minutes every day to relieve stress and improve your mood.
- Other essential oils that combine well with lemon essential oil are neroli, fennel, rose, eucalyptus, geranium, frankincense, sandalwood, ylang ylang, peppermint, and tea tree oil.
Lemon essential oil may cause phototoxic reactions when applied to the skin. Avoid exposure to any sources of ultraviolet radiation, such as the sun, and cover up when going outdoors during the day. Also, consuming lemon essential oil could cause a burning sensation or pain in your throat, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and pain in the abdomen.
Clove Essential Oil
The main chemical component of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil, eugenol, is responsible for its many health benefits. When inhaled, eugenol keeps your energized and less stressed. Because of its numbing properties, clove essential oil makes a good remedy for any condition that causes pain. In addition, if you have trouble sleeping, you may want to use this essential oil to help you sleep better.
Aside from its numbing properties, clove essential oil is known for its ability to treat digestive problems. The result of a 2011 study demonstrates that it may prevent the formation of ulcers in your digestive tract by increasing the production of thick mucus, which protects the lining of your digestive organs from gastric acid. 17 If left untreated, GERD, one of the major causes of heartburn, can cause ulcers, bleeding, and long-lasting scarring of the esophagus.
Suggestions for Use
- External use: Dilute 3 t0 5 drops of clove essential oil in 2 teaspoons of mild carrier oil, such as almond oil and coconut oil. If you experience mild irritation, add more carrier oil. Rub a drop or two on your stomach area.
- Diffusion: Add 3 to 4 drops of clove, orange, and lavender essential oils to a diffuser of your choice. Diffuse for 10 to 20 minutes every day to energize your senses and uplift your mood.
- Other essential oils that combine well with clove essential oil are bergamot, basil, clary sage, cinnamon bark, lavender, grapefruit, orange, lemon, rose, peppermint, ylang ylang, and rosemary.
Never consume clove essential oil without the supervision of a medical professional and certified aromatherapist. In large doses, it can irritate and damage healthy tissues, such as those found in your mouth and esophagus. Dilute it properly if you’re going to apply this to your skin. People with abnormally high blood sugar levels and liver or kidney problems should avoid using this essential oil.
Lemongrass Essential Oil
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil has a fresh and citrusy scent, which dispels negative emotions and stress and improves the length and quality of sleep. Inhaling 3 to 6 drops of lemongrass essential oil for a short period is enough to alleviate anxiety, study finds. 18
Some people add lemongrass and lemongrass essential oil to teas, curries, soups, and other dishes to add flavor or take advantage of its therapeutic properties. Anecdotal reports suggest that lemongrass essential oil helps improve digestion and treat digestive disorders, such as stomachaches, gastric ulcers, and gastritis (inflamed stomach lining). The result of a study shows that it can protect the lining of the digestive tract from necrotizing agents, specifically aspirin and ethanol, thus preventing the formation of ulcers. 19
Due to one of its main chemical components, limonene, it’s an effective anti-inflammatory and painkiller. If you feel pain in your chest or upper part of your stomach, apply a few drops of this essential oil (diluted) to experience temporary relief.
Suggestions for Use
- External use: Dilute 3 drops of lemongrass essential oil, 2 drops of eucalyptus, and 2 drops of lavender essential oil in 4 teaspoons of fractionated coconut oil. Use this as a massage oil to help you relax and sleep better.
- Diffusion: Add 4 drops of lemongrass essential oil, 2 drops of ginger essential oil, and 2 drops of grapefruit essential oil to a diffuser of your choice. Diffuse for 10 to 20 minutes every day to promote better digestion and help you lose weight.
- Other essential oils that combine well with lemongrass essential oil are eucalyptus, lavender, basil, cedarwood, jasmine, rosemary, coriander, lavandin, geranium, and tea tree oil.
Lemongrass essential oil can irritate and burn your skin and the tissue around your internal organs (if you ingest it). Aside from children and pregnant or breastfeeding women, people who have health problems (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, abnormally low blood sugar, and kidney or liver disease) should limit or avoid using this essential oil.
Fennel Essential Oil
The essential oil derived from the herb fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) has a sweet, peppery, and earthy fragrance. When used in aromatherapy, it keeps you energized and focused.
However, it’s best known for its ability to aid digestion when used internally. 20 It helps eliminate constipation, gas, bloating, diarrhea, stomachache, and other digestive problems. The fennel herb and essential oil are often used as an ingredient in many dishes (salads, dips, soups, etc.) to add flavor and support a healthy digestive system.
As what I’ve mentioned previously, being overweight or consuming sweets with trigger foods can cause heartburn. Historically, fennel seeds have been used for weight loss. People ate them every Lent to ward off hunger and aid digestion. It helps you lose weight by improving your metabolism and suppressing your appetite. 21
Since it’s many times sweeter than table sugar, it’s a good alternative to processed sugar and sweets. This is because it contains 70% to 80% trans-Anethole, which is 13 times sweeter than table sugar. 22 This ether is also known for its ability to support digestion.
Suggestions for Use
- External use: Dilute 5 drops of fennel essential oil, 3 drops of nutmeg essential oil, 3 drops of peppermint essential oil, and 2 drops of ginger essential oil in 6 teaspoons of mild carrier oil. Apply this blend on your belly area to ease digestive issues.
- Diffusion: Add 2 drops of fennel essential oil, 1 drop of lavender essential oil, and 1 drop of grapefruit essential oil to a diffuser of your choice. Diffuse for 10 to 20 minutes every day, or when necessary.
- Other essential oils that combine well with fennel essential oil are sandalwood, rosemary, lemon, lavender, geranium, rose, ylang ylang, orange, grapefruit, sage, cypress, and basil.
Use fennel essential oil carefully because it contains high amounts of trans-Anethole. It may possibly cause photosensitivity reactions, inflamed skin, nausea, and vomiting if you use large amounts of it.
This essential oil may boost estrogen levels and trigger convulsions and hallucinations. Thus, pregnant or breastfeeding women, children, and those with health problems (e.g., epilepsy and estrogen-dependent cancers) should avoid using this essential oil.
Should You Be Worried About Heartburn?
Occasional heartburn doesn’t generally require intensive medical care. However, if it becomes too frequent and chronic, it could sometimes cause serious complications, such as inflamed voice box (laryngitis), chronic cough, swallowing difficulty, ulcers and scarring of the esophagus, and Barrett’s esophagus (which could increase your risk of esophageal cancer).
So, when should you consult your doctor about your heartburn? According to the Cleveland Clinic 23, make an appointment to see your doctor if any of these symptoms are present:
- You vomit due to your heartburn.
- Your heartburn worsens or is recurrent.
- It’s hard or painful to swallow.
- You suddenly lose a significant amount of weight.
- You still have heartburn symptoms despite taking nonprescription antacids for 14 days or longer.
- You have severe wheezing or hoarseness.
- Your condition affects your daily activities.
In some cases, making diet and lifestyle changes can get rid of heartburn (and prevent another from happening). People who are experiencing heartburn due to an illness, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), may be able to fully recover without serious complications or recurrent episodes—if the condition is treated early and an effective treatment plan is in place.
Essential oils can help alleviate the symptoms of heartburn, but they’re not replacements to medical care. And if you’re not careful, they may do more harm than good. That’s why I highly suggest that you get the help of a qualified aromatherapist before using these to treat heartburn and other digestive issues. Avoid ingesting any of these essential oils without proper supervision of a doctor and qualified aromatherapist.
Did you ever suffer from heartburn? What essential oils and natural remedies worked best for you? Don’t forget to share your thoughts and tips below. I’d love to hear them!
   Florida Hospital: https://www.floridahospital.com/heartburn-gerd/statistics-about-heartburn
 Liju VB, Jeena K, and Kuttan R. (2015 Jan). Gastroprotective activity of essential oils from turmeric and ginger. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. Vol. 26, Issue 1, Pages 95-103. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24756059.
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/ginger-essential-oil/
 Ou MC, Lee YF, Li CC, and Wu SK. (2014 Oct). The effectiveness of essential oils for patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Vol. 20, No. 10, Pages 771-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192562
 National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: https://nccih.nih.gov/health/peppermintoil
 Ken Haruma, Yoshikazu Kinoshita, Shigeru Sakamoto, et al. (2015). Lifestyle Factors and Efficacy of Lifestyle Interventions in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients with Functional Dyspepsia: Primary Care Perspectives from the LEGEND Study. Internal Medicine. Vol. 54, Issue 7, Pages 695-701. Retrieved from https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/internalmedicine/54/7/54_54.3056/_article
 Woelk H and Schläfke S. (2010 Feb). A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder. Phytomedicine. Vol. 17, Issue 2, Pages 94-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962288
 Silva GL, Luft C, Lunardelli A, et al. (2015 Aug). Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 87(2 Suppl):1397-408. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26247152
 Niijima A and Nagai K. (2003 Nov). Effect of olfactory stimulation with flavor of grapefruit oil and lemon oil on the activity of sympathetic branch in the white adipose tissue of the epididymis. Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol.228, Issue 10, Pages 1190-2. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14610259
 Healthline: https://www.healthline.com/health/gerd/gas#theconnection
 Babar Ali, Naser Ali Al-Wabel, Saiba Shams, et al. (2015 Aug). Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Vol. 5, Issue 8, Pages 601-611. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169115001033
 Santin JR, Lemos M, Klein-Júnior LC, et al. (2011 Feb). Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology. Vol. 383, Issue 2, Pages 149-58. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21140134
 Goes TC, Ursulino FR, Almeida-Souza TH, et al. (2015 Dec). Effect of Lemongrass Aroma on Experimental Anxiety in Humans. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Vol. 21, Issue 12, Pages 766-73. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26366471
 CN Fernandes, HF De Souza, G De Oliveria, et al. (2012 Jan-Mar). Investigation of the Mechanisms Underlying the Gastroprotective Effect of Cymbopogon Citratus Essential Oil. Journal of Young Pharmacists. Vol. 4, Issue 1, Pages 28-32. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326778/
 DoTERRA.com: https://www.doterra.com/US/en/blog/spotlight-fennel-oil
 Dr. Axe: https://draxe.com/fennel-essential-oil/
 AromaWeb.com: https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/fennel-oil.asp